City wall, the witness of the history
City wall in Nanjing is highly recommended while visiting here. It is quite visible in many connecting areas which is between downtown and suburb. The large scale of construction started from Ming Dynasty(600 years ago). In the ancient time, city wall is built up for lining out the city, preventing the invasion of outsider which its function is similiar to the castles in European cities. Due to the historical reasons, many parts of the wall was tore down or was not well-preserved. However, the wall of Nanjing still maintain the record of the LONGEST CITY WALL IN THE WORLD.
The Stele Pavilion
(Dr.Sun Yet-Sen's Mausoleum)
The Stele Pavilion,12 meters long at each bottom side and 17 meters high,is a granite construction roofed with blue glazed tiles.The stele erected inside is 8,1 meters high and 4 meters wide,with a three-line inscription on it by Tan Yankai,one of the founders of Kuomintang.The characters on the stele were written in Yan Zhenqing stle,which features vigor and strength.
"The Southern Capital"
Nanjing, which means "Southern Capital," is located on the south bank of the Chang Jiang (Yangtze River.) It is one of the six ancient metropolises of China.
It has a population of 2,680,000. Another 2,520,000 live in the surrounrding counties and districts.
During the Warring States period (476-221 BC) Nanjing was a disputed prize. When the Qin dynasty finally united all of China, Nanjing became stable. It served as the administrative center for the surrounding region.
When the Eastern Han dynasty fell in 220 AD, Nanjing became the capital of the state of Wu.
In 589 AD, General Wen Di captured Nanjing and detroyed all the important buildings in order to ensure Beijing's establishment as capital of China. But in 1368, the first emperor of the Ming dynasty established his capital in Nanjing where it remained until 1420. Beijing became capital again at this time.
During the Opium War of 1842, the British forced China to sign the Treaty of Nanjing which was the first of what were called the "unequal treaties."
During the Taiping Rebellion of 1851-1864, Nanjing was the base of the rebel leader Hong Xiuquan. Another upheaval came after 1911 when the Guomindang under Sun Yat Sen overthrew the Qin dynasty and eventually moved the capital back from Beijing to Nanjing.
In 1937 Nanjing resisted the Japanese occupation, but fell after the Nanjing Massacre when about 300,000 people were murdered.
When World War II ended in 1945, Nanjing again became the Nationist's capital. The Communist's captured it in 1949 and established BEijing as the capital of the People's Republic of China.
Nanjing is in the region of the Lower Yangtrze Mandaring dialects. It is the home of many important educational and research institutions.
The most famous of its handicrafts are silk brocades, especially those called "cloud brocades."
Nanjing is one of the "three furnaces of China" due to its hot climate in the summer.