If you stay in a hostel and are on a budget and don't want to spend too much money on eating out then there is a huge place for grocery shopping not far from Takayama Station. The Tourist Info Booth outside the station got a good map and can give you directions. But it is not hard to find if you want to give it a go on your own.
Approx. 10-15min walk.
* If you stand at the entrance of the station and facing the Tourist Information Booth turn left and keep folllowing the station building (should be on your left the whole time) until it ends.
* Keep walking - the street should be on your right.
* Turn first left. Keep walking straight ahead.
* Cross train tracks. Just keep walking straight.
* The Grocery Store will turn up straight ahead, a little to the left side.