A great well preserved medieval city
(Extract and summary from external sources + my own inputs)
Name of the city is coming from "dead waters" ("lei Aigas Mòrtas" in old local langage, becoming "Aigues-Mortes" in modern French)
The foundation of the city was around 102 BC, but the first official document mentioning a place called "Ayga Mortas" (dead waters) dates from the 10th century.
Louis IX of France (Saint Louis) rebuilt the port in the 13th century as France's only Mediterranean port at that time. It was the starting point of the Seventh Crusade (1248) and the Eighth Crusade (1270).
From 1575 to 1622, Aigues-Mortes was one of the eight safe havens granted to the Protestants. The revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 caused severe repression of Protestantism,
The 1,650 metres of city walls were built in two phases: the first during the reign of Philippe III the Bold and the second during the reign of Philippe IV the Fair, who had the enclosure completed between 1289 and 1300. The Constance Tower, completed in 1248, is all that remains of the castle built in Louis IX's reign. It was almost certainly the gatehouse tower, designed to be impregnable with its six-metre-thick walls.
(picture from Tourism Info center web site)
"Saint Louis (Louis IX of France)"
Louis IX (25 April 1214 – 25 August 1270), commonly Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 to his death.
Louis's piety and kindness towards the poor was much celebrated.
He went on two crusades, in his mid-30s in 1248 (Seventh Crusade) and then again in his mid-50s in 1270 (Eighth Crusade). Both were complete disasters; after initial success in his first attempt, Louis's army of 15,000 men was met by overwhelming resistance from the Egyptian army and peoplecite.