Caernarfon Castle - The Kitchens
The slight stone foundations suggest that the castle kitchens were never completed as planned or used as originally intended. The remains include interesting details of water engineering.
The seatings for copper cauldrons at the west (left) end of the range indicate the planned position of the boiling house. Here, meat would have been boiled and the remaining stock used to make pottage, a soup-like dish that was a staple part of the medieval diet.
Caernarfon County Hall
One of the most imposing buildings in Caernarfon is the classical building of the County Hall.
The County Hall was built the 13th century, however the present building with it's fluted ionic columns dates from the 1860s and is currently used as the County Court.
Victoria Dock (Doc Fictoria)
Victoria Dock was built in the 1870's due to an increase in shipping for the Local Slate industry. As the industry declined the dock was used less and less but was then redeveloped into a Yachting marina and was chosen as the location for Y Galeri arts Centre.
Situated just outside the city walls it is now very much a part of a great new development which contains Fu's Chinese restaurant, Yr Harbwr bar and restaurant, Celtica Retail Centre, A Premier Inn and a Travelodge.
Caernarfon Castle: North-East Tower
This is an octagonal tower of two storeys only. The ground-floor room houses an exhibition on the princes of Wales. The characteristic wall-passages of the southern curtain are continued round the outer sides of the tower, but do not go beyond it. This is because the work of the earlier building period terminates here and wall-passages were not provided in the northern curtain which, from this point to the Eagle Tower, dates from 1295 and later. The stair is at the top of the turret. The battlements of this turret are unusual in having arrowloops set beneath them.
A Royal Town
In the summer of 77AD a regiment of Roman Cavalry was ambushed and massacred by members of a tribe known as the Ordovices. It was a great military defeat and a blow to the moral of the Romans but a great boost to the British resistance to the Roman occupation. It was considered to late in the year for a counter attack but as soon as Agricola, the new Roman Governor of Britain crossed the Channel he set about greatly reversing this set back. Leading his Legions and Auxiliaries straight into North Wales and almost the whole fighting force of the Ordovices was destroyed. The Romans built a ring of forts around the heartland of the conqard tribe, Each linked by a road and the 2 main Forts being accessible by sea from the Legionary fortress of Chester. These 2 forts were Canovium on the river Conwy and Segontium near the Menai Strait.
In it's heyday Segontium was Gassisoned by the 20th Auguston Legion and was surrounded by a shanty town inhabited by traders and soldiers families representing an impressive urban complex in what would then have been a totally rural world.
Once established as a centre of administration for North Wales it has continued in much the same function ever since, and as it was mentioned as a Kings seat in an old Welsh story and apears in early history as one of 'twenty eight cities of Britain' it certainly seems evident that it remained a political centre and maybe was a court for the Welsh Princes in the centuries after the Romans had gone. It was mentioned by Giraldus Cambrensis that there was a castle there when he passed through North Wales in 1188 and Llywelyn the Great dated a charter from there in 1221 which indicates it was a Welsh seat of Goverment long before it became an English one.
"The coming of the English and Edward I"
Ar-Fon was one of the areas of the ancient kingdom which is now the county of Gwynedd and it means 'across from Mon, (Anglesey). The name 'Caer-yn-Arfon' or Castle in Arfon is very ancient reflecting that from roman times there has always been some kind of fortification there.
The castle refered to by Giraldus was most probably a motte and bailey structure built by the Norman Earl of Chester towards the end of the 11th c, It is known that the motte of such a castle was on the eastern end of the site used by Edward I and was actualy incorporated into the design of the excisting castle. unfortunatly the motte was removed at the end of the 19th C .
Whith the Death of the last Welsh prince at the end of 1282 Edward I had finaly secured a hold over North Wales which was sufficient to start annexing it permanently to the English throne, he imediatly started to build a series of castles so as to secure hi conquest. As at Conwy and Harlech the building of the New Caernarfon dates from early 1283 the castle and town growing together from the start.
In the summer of 1283 the King visited his project staying in a tempory wooden building and returning in April 1284 he returned with the Queen and it was in the tempory residence that his son the future King Edward II was born and as the story says he was presented to the Welsh leaders in fulfilment of a promise given by Edward I that he would give them a prince that was born in Wales and who could speak no word of English.
The castle and town walls of Caernarfon were mostly constructed by 1285 although work continued for many years to come with a number of setbacks the first of which was probably the main reason that it was never really completed. in the winter of 1294-5 while Cearnarfon was unfinished and thus unprepared the people of North wales Rebeled after the death of Llywelyn and under the leadership of Madoc they overran the incomplete walls of Caernarfon, took the town and stormed into the castle over the foundations of the North wall burning everything that would burn. Edward marched into North Wales and quashed the rebelion in person, the Castle was greatly damaged and a considarable amount of building work had to begin again and the building plan changed to make it more heavily defensive.
From the begining a town of Caernarfon had exsisted both inside and outside the town walls but in Edwards day no Welsh would have been allowed to live or venture within the town walls.
It is within the town walls that almost all of the older building lie and the town has kept the simple grid pattern of medieval streets and a feeling of enclosure whith certainly adds to it's character, Archways in the town walls at the ends of Market st, church st and north gate st were added during the 18th and 19th centuaries to aid the flow of traffic and compliment the original gateways and the postern 'watergate' at the bottom of Castle Ditch. The main entrance to town became the point were a light curtain wall had joined the town walls to the castle, this was known as The Green Gate (now Greengate St) so called because Castle Square which was levelled in 1817 was formaly the towns Green.
Due to the large amount of building which took place here as with everwhere during the 19th c not many old houses remain from the period of Caernarfons importance as a great trading and administrative centre. The buildings of the medieval town would have been built of an Oak frame with walls of interwoven sticks plastered with clay and lime, several of these buildings remained until the end of the 18th c but all have now disapered and the best example of the older buildings that remain is the 17c Black Boy Inn on North Gate St. There are several other 17th and 18th C buildings remaining mostly of a modest scale