More than a thousand years before Columbus' historic voyage to the Americas, the land that is now Pickaway County had already been settled, occupied, and then mysteriously abandoned by the Hopewell Culture of Mound Builders. When the American Indians followed later, and ultimately the European settlers, they found mounds throughout the area, some of which were burial mounds.
The earliest recorded history of Pickaway County goes back to 1774 when Lord Dunmore led an army into the Ohio Valley and waged war with the Indians. After many battles and countless deaths on each side of the conflict a meeting to draw up a truce was held on the Pickaway Plains, under a huge Elm tree with branches spreading 120 feet around. During this meeting, Mingo Indian Chief Logan delivered a speech which has been translated into many languages. Widely known as "Logan's Lament," is is considered to be one of the most eloquent speeches ever delivered.