The picture shows the god Horus as a Falcon with the crown of the Pharao for the upper and lower Egypt.
All Pharaos got their power from Horus, and they are compared with him.
Horus is a quite complicated god, he is pictured differently, sometimes as a falcon or a human with the head of a falcon, sometimes with the sign of the sun over his head (as Re-Harakhte), sometimes also as a young man..
There is an interesting story one should know when visiting this temple.
Seth (the god of lower Egypt) hated his brother Osiris (the god of upper Egypt), so he made a beautiful wooden box. He then invited all the gods to a party and promised the box the one who would fit in perfectly. Everybody tried, but only Osiris fit in. Seth then nailed the box shut and threw him into the Nile when nobody watched. Osiris wife Isis who was pregnant then with Horus had to watch how Seth took all the power. She was afraid and set Horus in a casket in the Nile so he would be found and rised by humans. (Like Moses).
Then she looked for her husband and finally found him in Byblos. She reanimated him with her magic. Of course Seth found out.
So this time he wanted to make it right and when he attacked Osiris and killed him, he dismembered him and placed his parts all over Egypt.
Isis looked everywhere, but she could not find the last piece (the Phallus) and without it, she could not revive Osiris.
Osiris then became the god of the afterworld and Seth ruled over Egypt.
Horus grew up and met his mother who told him about the traitor, his uncle.
In a big war Horus fought against Seth and finally defeated him. SInce then Horus is the god of whole Egypt.
The fight Horus against Seth is pictured on the walls on the side of the temple. There Seth is showed as a Hyppothamus or a Pig and Horus as a Human that spears him.
The Pylons are the big walls that stand on the right and left of the entrance.
They are quite typical for the later temples (Ptolomeic time)
The Pylons of Edfu are the second biggest (after Karnak) and are really symmetrical.
In front of the Pylons you find two small statues of Horus as a falcon. Well .. small is relative. Each of these is bigger than a human.
The Pylons show the Pharao how he fights against his enemys. He holds their scalps in his hand and is about to hit them with a club. He is watched by the gods Horus and his wife Hathor.
Over the Entrance doors you can always find the sign of the sun, protected by two Uraeus snakes and two wings.
This sign is there as a protection.
Within the Temple of Horus, there was an earlier temple built by Imhotep, for the Pharaoh Tuthemoses and it is clear that the era of this inner sanctuary is much older compared to the facade and outer walls of the temple.
One of the largest walls in the temple is dedicated to the story of Horus. During the time that we went into this area of the Temple, the sunlight really showed off how hard the people of this age must have worked to get this temple up to par.
Check out the work here!
Within the Temple of Edfu is the monument dedicated to Horus. He is represented here as a falcon, and on his head is the pharaoh's symbol of reign over Upper and Lower Egypt.
As you can see, even in May, the crowds were already in force at the temples!
One of the unique features of this temple is the guardwall that surrounds this temple. It is very interesting to see that these walls were not built in a straight line, representing the ebbs and tides of the Nile river. It is also interesting to see the various types of guard positions that were built throughout the years.
This is a temple that was dedicated to the God Horus. One of the first things that you will notice about this temple is how well preserved it is. Also, when you look inside, you will notice that there has not been much damage by post pharonic people. One of the reasons this is in such good condition is the fact that it was buried under sand for many years.
Experts suggest that this was built in the Ptolemaic era, and contains many different dedications to the God Horus.
The facade of the first hypostyle hall has images honoring Horus and Hathor, and there is an immaculate ten foot tall colossi of Horus as the falcon god here. As you enter the great hall, you will begin to notice the use of light Even though the temple was build over hundreds of years, it is very harmonious, and ebbs and flow of lighting was certainly purposeful, portraying a feeling of mystery. Just inside the hall are two small rooms, a robing room on the west and a library to the east where the priest would obtain the religious orders of the day. Within this hall are scenes of offering including the temple foundation ceremonies.
The main building, which includes a great Hypostyle Hall, has numerous reliefs, including a depiction of the Feast of the Beautiful Meeting, the annual reunion between Horus and his wife Hathor. During the third month of summer, the priests at the Dendera complex would place the statue of Hathor on her barque (a ceremonial barge) and would thus bring the statue to the Edfu Temple, where it was believed that Horus and Hathor shared a conjugal visit. Each night, the god and goddess would retire to the mamissi, or berthing house. There was an annual ritual called the known as the Triumph of Horus (10 harpoons) which ended in the slaying of a hippopotamus, the symbol of Seth.
The sanctuary itself is surrounded by chapels and rooms which, when facing north and in clockwise order, are the chapel of Min, the chamber of linen where the robs of the Horus would have been stored, the chamber of the throne of gods, the chamber of Osiris, the chamber of the West, the tomb of Osiris, the chamber of the victor (Horus), where there is a reconstructed ceremonial barge (barque), chapels of Khonsu and Hathor, the chapel of the throne of Re and a chapel of the spread wings, dedicated principally to Mehit, the lioness who guarded the path the soul passed on its journey towards resurrection. The statue of Horus would be taken from here up a flight of stairs to the roof terrace where it would be recharged by the sun during the Festival of the New Year. The walls of the stairs located in the outer anti-chamber depict this ritual.
Beyond the great hypostyle hall is a second, smaller hypostyle hall which leads to a well called the Chamber of the Nile where the Priests obtained pure holy water. On the west side of the room are doors that lead to a small laboratory with recipes engraved on the walls for ointments and perfumes which where used daily to anoint the statue of Horus, and to a treasure room where offerings were stored. Beyond the second hypostyle hall is the offering hall, followed by the vestibule and finally the sanctuary. There is a granite naos here dedicated by Nectanebo II, making it the oldest relic in the temple. It is probable that a golden gilded wooden statue of Horus about 60 cm tall would have resided on the naos. This statue would have been cared for by the priests in a human manner, being washed, dressed, anointed, fed and entertained.
The sun and the moon are said to be his eyes. Horus avenged the death of his father against Seth. Horus lost his left eye (the moon) in the contest between the two. Horus was identified with Lower Egypt and Seth with Upper Egypt in this battle, which lasted eighty years. The gods judged Horus to be the winner, and Seth was either killed or castrated. The consequence of Horus's victory was the union of Upper and Lower Egypt. The Egyptian pharaoh was believed to be an incarnation of Horus, and the name of Horus formed part of his name. The pharaoh was said to become Horus after death. Seth restored the eye he had torn from Horus, but Horus gave it instead to Osiris. The image of the "eye of Horus", a human eye combined with the cheek markings of a falcon, became a powerful amulet among the Egyptians.
The temple at Edfu houses one of the best known 'perfume laboratories'; the hieroglyphics on its walls hold the key to some of the mystical perfumes of the past. For example Kyphi; although its recipe varies slightly from temple to temple, the ingredients always amount to sixteen (4x4) and consist of raisins, burned resin, myrrh, sweet rush, aspalathos, juniper, cypress grass, honey and wine. Kyphi was burnt nightly to please the Gods as they began their journey into the underworld and to ensure the safe return of the sun God, Ra the next morning - never failing. Never has any society burnt as much Incense as the Ancient Egyptians, copiously used in rituals, it was also widely used in daily living.
Other formulas adorn the walls of the perfume room; Hekenu (to anoint divine limbs), the Metopian, the Megalion etc. In their way, they were already applying aromatherapy, the preparations being effective either through inhalation or through massage.
Of all the temples of ancient Egypt, the one at Edfu is the most complete and best preserved. This is because the temple was totally submerged under the desert except for the very top of the pylon entrance. A small amount of stone had been removed from the exposed part, but when excavated it was found to be in near perfect condition.
The temple is dedicated to Horus and was built in the Ptolemaic period. At the entrance to the inner temple stands a magnificent black marble statue of the god. The Hypostyle hall is both imposing and impressive because of its size and condition. An impressive feature of the temple is that nearly every surface is covered by carvings and hieroglyphics, some of which were defaced by Christians as they considered the images to be pagan.
This temple is unusual in that it is on the west bank of the river which was normally dedicated to the afterlife. It is thought that redirection of the river some time after construction of the temple is responsible for this.
The temple of Edfu is dedicated to the god Horus. It dates from the Ptolemaic era. The temple is well preserved.
Entrance fee to the temple was in march 2006, 35 L.E (Egyptian pound)