The mortuary temple of Hatshepsut of untraditional appearance which appears to be in harmony with the surrounding environment.
The Temple nestles at the foot of the cliffs in a natural "bay" on the West Bank of Luxor. This area had long been sacred to the goddess Hathor. In the 7th century AD, it was named after a Coptic monastery in the area, known as the “Northern monastery”. There is a theory suggesting that the Temple, in the Early Christian Period, was used as a Coptic monastery.
After the introduction of Christianity, Hatshepsut’s temple was used as a monastery. Its modern name Deir el-Bahri is Arabic for "Northern Monastery."
The Temple served for her posthumous worship and to honor the glory of Amun and the other gods.
The individual parts of the Temple of Hatshepsut correspond to the classical form of Theban mortuary temples with pylon, courts, hypostyle hall, sun court, chapel for the royal cult, and sanctuary.
On the second pic you may see how did the Temple look like in 1902.
Buried for ages. Colonnaded terraces of Queen Makere’s Temple. Der El Bahri. Thebes. Egypt.
You may watch my 2 min 43 sec VIDEO-Clip on my personal YouTube channel: Egypt Luxor Hatshepsut Temple Part I 2007
The Temple consists of three imposing terraces. The two lower ones would have once been full of trees. On the southern end of the 1st colonnade there are some scenes, among them the famous scene of the transportation of Hatshepsut’s two obelisks from Aswan to Luxor.
The first terrace is enclosed on the far side by a portico consisting of 22 pillars and flanked by two Osiris pillers.
The broad court was planted with palm trees and grapevines. In front of the main structure ponds fringed with papyrus were laid out on either side of the center axis.
Central ramps lead to the second terrace, 8m high from first terrace, and buttressing walls are faced with colonnades of square pillars.
The second ramp leads to the uppermost terrace.
The 3rd terrace is also accessed by a ramp. It consists of two rows of columns, the front ones taking the Osirid form.
You may watch my 3 min VIDEO-Clip on my personal YouTube channel: Egypt Luxor Hatshepsut Temple Part II 2007
It is considered that Colossuses were made ostensibly 3400 years ago (XIV century B.C.). Their height is about 18 meters; weight of everyone is bout 1300 tons.
Let us have another look on their history together with Russian scientists and publicists Kaljuzhny and Valjansky.
In 1862 archeologist Oppel has found out, that their pedestals are shipped in silt on one meter eighty centimeters. According to a number of supervision it has been found out, that as a result of floods of the Nile the ground rises on 2,5 sm for each twenty years. It is simple to calculate, that 1,8 m of silt could increase during 1440 years. It means that colossuses are erected in any way after 422 AC.
But Oppel could not agree with it. He was convinced, that Egypt was a very ancient country. He continued excavations. There are rests of a stone dam near colossuses with the same layer of silt and, hence, it was built at the same time, as colossuses. But Oppel has paid attention that the dam was constructed on a terrace made of stone fragments with traces of bas-reliefs. They are shipped in silt more deeply, more than on 8 meters! Easy calculation and the scientist has received time of construction in six and a half of thousand years till our time.
Here it is - the antiquity! Here it is the confirmation of traditional history!
You may watch my 1 min 35 sec VIDEO-Clip on my personal YouTube channel: Egypt Luxor Colossi of Memnon 2007
The columns of the Anubis Chapel are fluted, unlike the plain piers used in the rest of this temple. This room at the far north end of the second colonnade has twelve of these grooved columns with an astronomical ceiling.
Wall paintings decorate the walls. The hypostyle hall with paintings depicting offerings to Anubis and Sokaris.
So it is come out that 6500 years ago there was a civilization on this place, which had built a lot of something, then constructions were tightened by silt, and in 422 AC people of new generation, with nothing knowing about the ancestors, have put here a dam.
If it so they are complete fools! Unless it was not clear that it was impossible to build stone constructions on silt, or they would be washed away with first high water? But let's do not consider them as fools! Simply they have thought that before putting a dam, it is necessary to make the base of stone fragments from any other constructions under it. They made it and that fact that the base had left downwards on eight meters has no relation to chronology. So both colossuses and the dam were constructed not earlier than in V AC only colossuses were built without the base because it was not necessary (they were not hydraulic engineering constructions).
If it is true - "the ancient civilization" disappears. In fact it is impossible to consider seriously the assumption, that ancient ancestors built the eight-meter base "on prospect", pondering, that their great-great-...-great-grandsons in some millennia would erect a dam on this base. Really, it is insulting for Egyptians. What nonsense can we read about this wonderful country in traditional history, all it turns out, that ancient local inhabitant are or necrophilists or simply madmen.
Forth pic - Colossuses of Memnon 1838 - David Roberts drawing
Hatshepsut was a daughter of Thutmose I, a half-sister and the wife of Thutmose II.
IShe proclaimed herself as pharaoh and in order to legalize her throne she made up a myth according to it she is a daughter of the God Amon-Ra. The text engraved on the walls of her funerary temple at Deir el-Bahari explains her divine conception as according to it Amun took the appearance of Tuthmose I to present himself to the royeal wife Athmes. Then Amun announced to queen Ahmes that they had conceived a daughter who is meant to become the ruler of Upper and Lower Egypt.
She ruled Egypt for about 20 years. She was a builder pharaoh. She encouraged the trade. The most famous expedition was the one to Punt details of which are depicted on the second portico of her temple. During her reign the Egyptian economy flourished.
She dressed and presented herself as a male pharaoh. And this lead to many errors of identification of her works with these of Tuthmose III, her successor. To make things worse Tuthmose III presented most of her works as done by him.
The architect of her funerary temple 'Temple of a Million Years' is Senenmut. He accumulated many administrative and religious duties and some believe he was a lover of Hatshepsut. Senenmut was inspired from Mentuhep's terrace temple. Egyptians called the temple 'Djeser Djeseru' meaning 'the most sublime of the sublimes'.
Hathor's Chapel is located south of the intermediate terrace. Some of the columns are with capitals bearing the head of the goddess Hathor.
Anubis' Chapel contains a vestibule with 12 columns and three cells.
We own this irritating name of the two statues of Amenhotep III to Greeks.
The two statues are the only remains of the funerary temple of Amenhotep III built by himself.
Both statues are of about 18m height and are highly damaged.
Memnon was a king of Ethiopia, the son of Eos and Titan, killed by Achilles in the Trojan War. He sang to his mother each morning at dawn.
These twin statues, which represent the Pharoah Amenhotep III, have stood at what is now the entrance to the Theban Necropolis since approximately 1350BC, and are around 60ft tall. They originally stood guard over Amenhotep's mortuary temple.
In 27 BC an earthquake damaged one of the statues, and it's remains were said to 'sing' at dawn, which is the origin of the name of Memnon (meaning Ruler of Dawn) being applied to it. It was repaired during the Roman period, sometime after 196CE