Nikko Things to Do

  • Taiyuin Temple
    Taiyuin Temple
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  • Iemitsu's Mausoleum
    Iemitsu's Mausoleum
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  • Taiyuin's Kokamon Gate
    Taiyuin's Kokamon Gate
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Most Recent Things to Do in Nikko

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    Kanmangafuchi Abyss

    by toonsarah Written Jan 15, 2014

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    Most day trippers to Nikko come, rightly, to see its magnificent shrines, but if you’re here for any longer you really shouldn’t miss a visit to the so-called Kanmangafuchi Abyss. While “abyss” is rather a grand term for what is essentially a small gorge, it’s a scenic spot and one which you’ll probably share with only a handful of other tourists rather than the hordes who visit Toshogu etc.

    The gorge was formed about 7,000 years ago by an eruption of nearby Mount Nantai. Since then the river Daiya has been carving these huge boulders into dramatic shapes as it tumbles over them. This area has been considered a sacred place since ancient times, because Fudo-Myo-O (a manifestation of the Cosmic Buddha) once appeared to people from the deep waters of the river. The name of the abyss, “Kanman”, comes from the murmuring sound of the river, which the Priest Kokai likened to an incantation chanted by Fudo-Myo-O of which the last word was “kanman”.

    A riverside path (easy walking but with some steps) follows the water upstream. On your left as you walk are the famous Bake-Jizō of Kanmangafuchi (see next tip) and on your right this tumbling stream. When we were here (third week in October) the leaves were turning and despite the dull weather there were some glowing colours that contrasted nicely with the rushing white waters. It really is a very photogenic spot.

    Part way along is the small building seen on the right in my main photo. This is Reihi-Kaku, formerly a Buddhist Gomadan (Alter of Holy Fire) which a priest, Kokai, built at the time of the foundation of the nearby Jiunji Temple. It was used to burn a holy fire facing a stone image of Fudo-Myo-O, located on the opposite bank. The Reihi-kaku was washed away by floods in 1902, and today's building is a 1971 reconstruction. The fire no longer burns here however.

    Beyond Reihi-Kaku and the Bake-Jizō the path ascends some steps past a small graveyard and through trees to emerge just below a main road. There are a couple of stone seats here but the views aren’t as good as from lower down, so you will probably want to simply turn and retrace your steps, as we did, for another chance to marvel at and photograph the Bake-Jizō

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    The Bake-Jizō of Kanmangafuchi

    by toonsarah Updated Jan 15, 2014

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    As soon as I saw photos of these haunting statues I knew I had to see them for myself. Commonly referred to as Hyaku Jizō, meaning the “100 Jizō”, there are in fact around 70 or 80 here as some were washed away in the 1902 flood. I say “around 70 or 80” because it is said that no one knows the exact number. A legend says that each time they are counted, the result is different – hence their other name, Bake-Jizō , meaning “Ghost Jizō ". Of course the more rational visitor may conclude that the reason for all the discrepancies when counting is that so many have been badly damaged that they are now little more than a pedestal or pile of stones, and therefore no one can be sure whether or not to count them. But the legend is more captivating!

    Another name sometimes used is Narabi Jizō, Jizō in a line, which is self-evident. They line one side of the path, facing the river, as if standing guard over the abyss. And in fact, standing guard is exactly what they are doing. Jizō is a Buddhist divinity, the guardian of children, and in particular, children who die before their parents. He is sometimes worshipped as the guardian of the souls of mizuko, the souls of stillborn, miscarried or aborted foetuses, in the ritual of mizuko kuyō, as I wrote about in my Tokyo tip about the Chingodo shrine in Asakusa.

    I have read several explanations for the practice of putting red bibs and caps on these statues. One suggests that this custom is primarily associated with a child’s recovery from sickness (or preserving them from falling sick) and the red colour was originally associated particularly with smallpox. But also, putting bibs and hats on these statues is a way of nurturing the spirits with whom they are believed to be imbued. Expectant or worried parents knit these hats and bibs for the statues and leave offerings of money for their children's well-being.

    We spent quite a lot of time taking photos of the statues, though had to wait a while to get the best ones as a man with a tripod had set up right in the middle and was in no rush to move on. But eventually we got all the images we wanted and were ready to move on and visit the nearby Joukouji Temple

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    Shinkyo Bridge

    by toonsarah Updated Jan 15, 2014

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    This distinctive red bridge is something of a symbol for Nikko. It belongs to the Futarasan Shrine (not, as may seem more likely, the slightly nearer Tosho-gu) and is the oldest bridge built over a gorge in Japan. It dates originally (in this form) from 1636. In 1902, during restoration works it was destroyed by the river and it was reconstructed in 1904. The most recent restoration was in 2005.

    It is 28 metres long and 7.4 metres wide and spans the river at a height of 10.6 metres above the water. It was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Cultural property in December 1999.

    This was the first bridge to be built over the Daiya river in Nikko, and its construction is linked to an interesting legend:

    It is said that around the year 766, the Priest Shodo Shonin together with ten disciples tried to cross the Daiya river, at the place where today this bridge stands. They were unable to cross the river because of the strong currents, so the priest fell on his knees and prayed. Suddenly, the God of the River, Jinja-Daio appeared before him and said that he would help him to cross. The god released two snakes over the river, one red and one blue; their bodies transformed into a bridge and sedge sprouted on their back, allowing the party to cross. After they had crossed the river they looked back; Jinja-daiou and the bridge had already disappeared.

    That’s why when it was rebuilt in the form we know today, during the time of Empress Meishō, it was considered sacred, and ordinary people were allowed only to look at the bridge, but had to cross the river on a different one nearby. Only the Empress, a few generals and Imperial messengers were allowed to use Shinko. This interdiction remained in place until modern times when, 40 years ago, the bridge was transformed into an open-air museum. And now everyone can cross it, for a fee of 500¥.

    We didn’t do this ourselves but watched as a succession of proud Japanese tourists (some of them in traditional costume) solemnly strolled from the town end of the bridge to the shrine end, paused to pose for photos, and then strolled back again. You see, while you can nowadays walk across the bridge, you can’t actually use it as a means of crossing the river because the far end is closed (I assume to ensure that everyone pays their 500¥). So to cross the river you do still need to do as ordinary people did for centuries and use the parallel bridge that now carries the road traffic too.

    We came past here a few times and on one occasion by night, when the bridge is nicely illuminated and the scene more tranquil – a great photo opportunity. But for now it is time to leave the bridge and start to explore Nikko’s greatest treasures, the shrines, starting with Tosho-gu

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    Toshogu Shrine: general information

    by toonsarah Updated Jan 14, 2014

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    There is one sight that every visitor to Nikko comes to see, and that is the Toshogu Shrine. And rightly so. This flamboyantly ornamented, intricately carved, riotously coloured collection of buildings will blow your mind!

    The shrine is the burial place of Tokugawa Ieyasu, the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate, which ruled from 1600 until the Meiji Restoration in 1868. It was Ieyasu who established Tokyo as the seat of government of a (more or less) unified Japan. A perhaps surprising choice for deification, he was brutal and bloodthirsty in pursuit of power; even members of his own family died at his hands. It was he too who established the trade monopolies that resulted in the almost total isolation of Japan from the rest of the world for over two centuries.

    Ieyasu had expressed the wish to be deified after his death in order to protect his descendants from evil. He died in 1616 and his remains were originally buried at the Gongens' mausoleum at Kunōzan, but a year later were reburied here at Toshogu. It was his grandson Iemitsu who, in 1834, ordered the construction of the complex of 55 buildings we see today in order to fulfil Ieyasu’s dying wish:
    "Build a small shrine in Nikko and enshrine me as the God. I will be the guardian of peace keeping in Japan."
    He chose Nikko because of its location north of Edo. The north was considered the taboo direction, inhabited by demons. By placing himself there, Ieyasu hoped to protect Japan from evil and ensure long life for the Tokugawa government and eternal peace for the nation.

    Whether these 55 buildings can be considered a “small shrine” is another matter! It took 15,000 workers to build them, but they did so in an impressive one year, five months! The shrine complex was registered as a World Heritage site in December 1999, and most of the individual buildings are designated as either “an Important Cultural Property” or “a National Treasure” by the Japanese government. Almost all are covered with an explosion of colour and every surface is carved – there are 5,173 carvings in total!

    The shrine is open every day of the year, from 8.00 – 17.00 in the summer months (April to October) and 8.00 – 16.00 in the winter. Last admission is 30 minutes before closing but I wouldn’t leave it that late – you need a minimum of an hour to see it properly, preferably two or more.

    Admission when we visited (October 2013) was 1,300¥. You may see references to a combination ticket for this and the other shrines but at the time of our visit that was suspended as the various sites hadn’t been able to agree a price. Check when you pay what the current situation is if you plan to visit more than one. I’d also read that there was a supplementary payment to see some parts of Toshogu (such as Ieyasu’s mausoleum and the famous “sleeping cat”) but our tickets covered the whole complex. Again, check when you buy.

    The photos attached to this tip were all taken on the approach to Toshogu, by the way. I have no idea of the purpose of the small procession we witnessed – there must have been a special event happening somewhere but we never saw anything more of it than this.

    There is so much to see here (and so many photos to take and share) that I’ve broken it down into a series of shorter tips. But before we start to explore, a warning.

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    Toshogu Shrine: Ishidorii

    by toonsarah Written Jan 14, 2014

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    You enter the complex through a massive torii gate, Ishidorii. This pre-dates Toshogu, having been dedicated in 1618 by Kuroda Nagamasa, the feudal lord of Kyushu Chikuzen (nowadays Fukuoka Prefecture). The torii is made out of 15 blocks of stone, instead of wood, which is more usually used for torii. This stone was transported by ship from Kyushu to Koyama and then manually hauled overland to Nikko. The cross rails are hollow to minimise their weight and help withstand the impact of earthquakes. Despite this, an earthquake in 1949 caused a joint of the crossbars to slip widely, but it was shifted back to its original position by an aftershock. The inscription at the top reads: "Tosho-daigongen" (Divine designation of Ieyasu Tokugawa).

    The stone steps leading up to the Ishidorii are cunningly designed. Although there are only ten of them, an impressive false perspective effect is created by the fact that the staircase narrows toward the top, and the height of the steps also decreases as they ascend. Despite the fact that the Tokugawa Shogunate had officially closed its doors to the rest of the world, in practice they had some secret channels that were used to bring in information and ideas from other countries. This included importing the concept of perspective from European art, and the designer Kobori Enshu put this to good use here at Toshogu – not only in the design of these steps but also on the path between the big cedar trees. In the past, the further you went the shorter the cedars were cut, creating the impression of a long, narrow path.

    And now, let’s go through the gate to the first building here, the Five-storied Pagoda

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    Toshogu Shrine: the Five-storied Pagoda

    by toonsarah Updated Jan 14, 2014

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    Inside the Ishidorii the first building you come to, on your left, is the Five-storied Pagoda or Gojunoto. This is designated as an Important Cultural Property by the government of Japan. The Gojunoto Pagoda was dedicated in 1648 by Sakai Tadakatsu, the feudal lord of Obama in Wakasa Province (present day Fukui Prefecture). But the one that stands here today built in 1818 to replace that earlier one which was destroyed by fire in 1815.

    The pagoda stands 35 metres high. It is carefully constructed to withstand earthquakes and strong winds. It has no internal floors and a central column is suspended by a chain from the fourth storey to support the ones below. This doesn’t rest on any foundations but instead is free to sway, thus functioning as a dynamic counterweight and also allowing for the wood to shrink or expand.

    The pagoda’s five stories, from top to bottom, represent sky, fire, earth, water and wind, as well as the five Buddhas of wisdom. It is decorated with the 12 signs of the Chinese zodiac on the first storey (see the tiger in photo four). You can go inside on payment of a small additional fee but we opted not to, wanting to press on and see the main shrine complex, and unfortunately I didn’t note the price.

    Beyond the pagoda you come to the ticket office, and to the official entrance to the shrine, the Omotermon Gate.

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    Toshogu Shrine: Omotemon

    by toonsarah Written Jan 14, 2014

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    This is the first of a series of impressive gates that mark the route through the Toshogu complex to its most sacred spots. It is also known as Niomon, a reference to the two guardian deity statues, Deva Kings, positioned on the left and right – Nioh means a guardian of Buddha. These were removed to the Taiyuin Mausoleum (part of Rinnoji Temple) by order of the Meiji government. At this time the gate took the name of Omotemon, meaning simply “front gate”. The Nioh, which are each four metres tall, were restored to their positions here in 1897 but the newer name stuck, for the most part.

    On the far (inner) side of the gate the equivalent niches are occupied by statues – a lion and a kirin (a mythological creature, usually paired with the lion), while golden elephant-like creatures adorn the passage-way on that side (see photo three). There are many other animal carvings too, including giraffes, tigers and leopards. The whole is a riot of colour and a wonderful foretaste of what is to come.

    Proceeding through the gate (where your ticket will be checked) you arrive in an open area with a number of buildings around the perimeter. Let us look first at the three Sacred Storehouses or Sanjinko

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    Toshogu Shrine: Sanjinko

    by toonsarah Written Jan 14, 2014

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    Beyond the Omotemon is an open area surrounded by smaller buildings, almost all of them richly carved. Three of these are known as the Sanjinko or Three Sacred Storehouses. To your right is Shimojinko (Lower Sacred Storehouse), in front of you Nakajinko (Middle Sacred Storehouse) and to the left of that, as you face it, is Kamijinko (Upper Sacred Storehouse). These are used to store the various harnesses and 1,200 costumes used in the Procession of a Thousand Samurai (Sennin Musha Gyoretsu), held each year in May and October. They also store the equipment for Yabusame contests (archery on horseback) which take place at the same time. The Sanjinko are open for viewing for one week each before the Spring and Autumn Festivals – I think we had unfortunately just missed the latter (but see this good description).

    All three storehouses are designated Important Cultural Properties and all are ornately carved, but the most striking and consequently most photographed is Kamijinko. Large carvings of elephant adorn its gable. They are known as the “Imaginary Elephants” because the artist, Kano Tanyu, would never have seen the real thing. He drew them from his imagination having heard accounts and descriptions, and really didn’t do a bad job under those circumstances – just think how hard it would be to conceive of an animal that looked like an elephant if you had never come across any, or any picture of one! OK the ears and tails are weird, but apart from that it’s pretty close.

    Facing the middle and upper storehouses across this space is one of the best known of Tosho-gu’s 55 buildings, the Sacred Stable or Shinkyu

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    Toshogu Shrine: Shinkyu

    by toonsarah Updated Jan 14, 2014

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    In contrast to the other buildings in this part of the complex, such as the storehouses described in my previous tip, the Shinkyu or Sacred Stable is relatively plain – probably the least adorned building in Tosho-gu. Yet it contains its most famous single carving, that of the Three Wise Monkeys – "See no evil, speak no evil, hear no evil".

    In fact, there is a frieze of eight monkey carvings. This frieze is known as a Sansaru and its panels function something like a picture book, telling the story of a monkey’s upbringing and way of life. Other images show scenes such as a mother caring for a youngster; a young monkey on his own, newly independent; a pair of monkeys; and a pregnant monkey. You can see all eight on this website. But everyone wants to see and to photograph this one, and you will have to wait your turn (remember my warning about the crowds that flock to Tosho-gu? Well, most of them are here to see this!)

    The monkey has been treated as a guardian of horse since early times and at one time there would have been a monkey actually kept in the stable. Today there is no live monkey, but the stable is home to two sacred white horses. Or rather, a temporary home, as the horses live “off site” and merely visit each day, for two and a half hours, taking it in turns to serve the shrine in this way. We were here as one arrived so had a good chance to take photos (see photo three) before he settled into the stable for the day.

    Different horses have served the shrine over the years but they must always be white. A notice outside the stable explained more about the current horses and their role:
    “Toshogu Shrine owns two sacred horses. One is “Kotuku” meaning “White Heron” in the New Zealand native Maori language. He is the third sacred horse donated by the New Zealand Government as a token of goodwill and friendship between the two countries. He is the only horse donated from overseas serving at a shrine in Japan at present.
    The other horse is “Fukuisami”, meaning “good luck and bravery” in Japanese. He is the second sacred horse donated by the Japanese Racing Association to the Toshogu Shrine.
    Each of these sacred horses takes turns serving the Shrine in this sacred stable for only two and a half hours a day. They spend the rest of the time, attended by a dedicated stablemaster and master horseman, at a nearby modern stable which is attached to an outdoor practice ground.”

    Beyond the Shinkyu is the Omizuya or cistern.

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    Toshogu Shrine: Omizuya

    by toonsarah Written Jan 14, 2014

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    Beyond the Shinkyu is the Omizuya or Cistern / Water Purification Building (“mizu” means water). Here the faithful purify the body and mind by washing their hands and rinsing out their mouth before worshiping the enshrined deity. The basin was dedicated in 1618 by Nabeshima Katsushige, feudal lord of Kyushu-Saga. It has been maintained in its original form without alteration since its construction in 1636 except for a few small structural changes.

    Today, there is an Omizuya, or Chozuya as they are also known, in most of the shrines in Japan. But originally worshippers would simply wash their hands and mouths in a natural river or spring. The Omizuya here at Toshogu was the first to be built specifically as the place of purification for worshippers. The significant techniques introduced for the first time in its construction include the installation of an aqueduct from the water source near the Takino-o-jinja to its water basin. In addition, a siphon mechanism was implemented as part of the water-supply system, which was an innovative approach at that time in Japan. Today however the water is supplied through contemporary metal piping.

    The basin is 1.2 metres wide, 2.6 metres deep, and 1 metre high. The ornate roof is decorated with sculptures of flying dragons. The dragon has wings to control the water. The roof is shaped like waves, echoing the water below. You can see from the richness of the ornamentation that it has fairly recently been restored. This was part of a 15 year project undertaken by a Mr. Yoshihara Hokusai, who rediscovered the ancient Kano school technique of Mitsuda-e, a paint mixing and application technique resistant to UV light and water, which had been lost in the Meiji era. Unfortunately Mr. Hokusai died in 1988 having failed to teach his 35-step process using 7 colours
    to any apprentice, though he did teach craftsmen how to apply the paint.

    One more building stands in this vicinity, the Kyozo

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    Toshogu Shrine: Kyozo

    by toonsarah Written Jan 14, 2014

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    The Kyozo or Rinzo is a revolving library holding 7,000 sutra or sacred texts. Revolving sutra libraries were invented in China and were later brought to Japan. They offer several advantages. Firstly, they allow priests and monks to select the required sutra more quickly. Secondly, the act of walking around or turning something is important in Buddhism because the wheel is the international sign of that faith. And finally, it was believed that simply by rotating the shelves around the central pillar the faithful would benefit from the learning contained in the texts of the sutras without actually reading them. It is not possible however to go inside this kyozo to see the mechanism or the sutras.

    And now it is time to proceed through what many consider to be Tosho-gu’s greatest glory, Yomeimon – but, as you will see, there was for us one small catch,

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    Toshogu Shrine: Yomeimon

    by toonsarah Updated Jan 14, 2014

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    Yomeimon under wraps

    The flamboyantly carved, riotously coloured Yomeimon is also known as Higurashino-mon, “the gate, where people spend all day long to look”, or the “Gate of the Setting Sun” because one could gaze upon it all day and never tire. Unfortunately for us, when we visited (October 2013) there was very little to look at, as Yomeimon was under restoration, and under wraps. Its more than 500 carvings of animals (real and mythical), people (children playing, sages and wise men), flowers and leaves were all hidden from our view. This also of course meant no photos. So I’ve had a dig around on the internet and come up with a couple of links to some great images and descriptions:

    Nikko Tourist Association website with a picture of the gate as a whole and descriptions of many of the carvings
    Ron Reznick Photoshelter, a gallery of fabulous images of Tosho-gu, with lots of great ones of Yomeimon towards the foot of the page, include several showing details.

    I also learned that this restoration of Yomeimon is part of a major restoration project, in which a number of buildings in turn will be tackled. For more information (and to find out what buildings might be affected when you visit) see this website: http://www.toshogu.jp/english/heisei/index.html. From this it seems that they are already into the “Second Project of Phase I”, which is scheduled to last six years from April 1, 2013 to March 31, 2019 and encompass three buildings, including Yomeimon and Shimojinko.

    Either side of Yomeimon is the Kairo or corridor, which extends to the right and left. It is decorated with flower and bird carvings that are considered among the best in Japan. All the carvings are single-panel openwork painted in vivid colours. But this too was covered up due to the building work, so was another delight that we had to miss seeing. Again Ron Reznick, whoever he may be, comes to my rescue with a series of wonderful images. Start here and then follow his series by clicking “NEXT” at the top right of each page. Please, if you only follow one hyperlink in all of my Nikko writings, make it this one!

    With relatively little to see here, we passed quickly through shrouded Yomeimon to reach the upper level of the complex and one of my favourite buildings here, the Shinyosha or portable shrine house.

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    Toshogu Shrine: Shinyosha

    by toonsarah Written Jan 14, 2014

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    Shinyosha on the left
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    This was perhaps one of my favourite of the smaller buildings in the complex, partly because of its more intimate scale and the exquisite animal carvings (see photos three and four). Known in English as the Portable Shrine House, and designated an Important Cultural Property, the Shinyosha houses the three portable shrines used in the Sacred Processions which take place in the spring and autumn (May 18th and October 17th).

    These shrines are also sometimes called sacred sedan chairs, because it is believed the deified spirits ride in them. The spirit of Ieyasu rides in the central shrine, seen in photo two. It carries the crest of the Tokugawa family which you see all over Toshogu (either side at the top). This is known as Mitsuba-aoi (three hollyhocks in a circle). The right hand shrine is for the spirit of Hideyoshi Toyotomi, while the left hand one is for Yoritomo Minamotono.

    Each shrine weighs 800 kilograms and is carried in the procession by 55 people. In the past they weighed much more – 1120 kilos – but this became too much for people to carry. The old shrines are displayed in the Treasure House of Toshogu Shrine which we didn’t manage to fit into our itinerary (it lies just outside the complex and a small additional fee is payable if you’d like to visit).

    But now it is time to approach the inner shrine, with its dramatic entrance gate, the Karamon.

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    Toshogu Shrine: Karamon

    by toonsarah Written Jan 14, 2014

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    The ceremonial entrance to the inner shrine area is the Karamon or Chinese Gate. In contrast to the flamboyant colours of most of Toshogu’s carvings, this is predominately, and exquisitely, finished in white and gold. On either side are pillars painted with dragons (photo three) and above the gate are 27 figures – characters from the Chinese legend “The Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove” (photo four). The man in the centre, sitting on the chair, is the Emperor Shun. The crane logo once used by Japan Airlines was derived from one of the carvings on this gate. It also features over 400 carvings of small flowers.

    Above the portal, and seen in my main photo, is a bronze figure of a tsutsuga, a mystical animal that protects all buildings. The tsutsuga is a ferocious creature, much stronger than a tiger. His legs are fastened with gold rings to prevent him escaping and thus withdrawing his protection from the shrine.

    The Karamon may be small compared with Toshogu’s other gates (just 3 metres wide and 2 metres deep) but it is perhaps the most important, leading as it does to the inner shrine. During the Edo period, only feudal lords and aristocrats were admitted through it to worship at the shrine, and even today, only guests of the nation can enter during important festivals.

    The rest of us must go in by an entrance on the right hand side of it to visit the Honsha or inner shrine.

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    Toshogu Shrine: Honsha

    by toonsarah Updated Jan 14, 2014

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    The main shrine or Honsha is not one but a connected series of buildings. It is allowed to enter these, but not through the Karamon. Instead there is an area on the right where you can remove your shoes and place them in a cubbyhole before proceeding to follow the line of worshippers and visitors down five copper steps and into a small chamber, the Ishinoma or Stone Passageway. This connects the Honden (main hall of the shrine) and Haiden (place of prayer). Today its floor is covered with tatami but in the past it was stone, hence the name. This space is important because it links the world of the gods (in the Honden) and the human world (the Haiden).

    From here you are directed by the attendant nuns or monks up a further five copper steps to enter the main hall or Honden. This is considered the most sacred place in Toshogu. It consists of three rooms: the Gejin (Outer room), the Naijin (Inner room) and the Nainaijin (Inner room of the Naijin, therefore the innermost room). The divine spirit of Ieyasu is enshrined in the Nainaijin in the golden shrine Gokuden. This building is said to be a perfect realisation of the Gongen-zukuri style of Japanese religious architecture. (Gongen=incarnation, Zukuri=construction). Built in 1636, it has not undergone any alteration apart from the replacement of the roofing materials in 1654 and of the stone foundations of the Honden in 1690. Of course photography is not allowed inside so you must be content, as I was, with a few shots taken from outside.

    Back outside, our next destination is another small but famous carving, the sleeping cat.

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Nikko Things to Do

Reviews and photos of Nikko things to do posted by real travelers and locals. The best tips for Nikko sightseeing.

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