Stephansdom - St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna

4.5 out of 5 stars 254 Reviews

Stephansplatz 3, 1010 Wien +43 1 515523054

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  • View of the main altar
    View of the main altar
    by Jefie
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  • Stephansdom - St. Stephen's Cathedral
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  • breughel's Profile Photo

    Fiat lux!

    by breughel Updated Sep 21, 2012

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    Two years ago I complained here about the very dark interior of the cathedral. On my new visit (end May 2012) the church was transformed in a festival of polychromatic floodlights!
    Everywhere red, mauve, bleu, orange lights illuminating the floor, walls and ceiling. It was most surprising. Furthermore the windows were clad with stripes of colored transparent plastic.
    I suppose it was the intention to create the same effect as that when the sun is shining through stained windows. I found it somewhat exaggerated but certainly spectacular.

    The renovation works at the main entry called the "Riesentor" Giant's Door and the "Heidentürme" towers are now finished so that you get a nice view standing in the Jasomirgstrasse. The name for these towers on the west front derives from the fact that they were constructed from old structures built by the Romans ("Heiden" means pagan) during their occupation of the area.
    Renovation works are still going on at the main tower.

    Polychromatic floodlight of ceiling. Stephansdom illuminations. Colored transparent plastic foils on windows. Renovated main entry. Renovation works at main tower.
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  • tiabunna's Profile Photo

    You just have to see #1

    by tiabunna Updated Jul 28, 2007

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    St Stephan’s surely must take the award for the “Number One” sight in Vienna. The problem is that you are likely to gain the impression that nearly everyone in Vienna also will be visiting whenever you are there! An early start does help though.

    Built in the 13th-14th centuries, St Stephan’s has had a hard time, being damaged by wars on several occasions. Most recently, it was severely damaged by fires late in WW II. That damage has long been repaired, but during our visit much of the main tower was so encased in scaffolding that I was prompted to make the unkind comment that it looked like a giant …well, never mind! Apparently the scaffolding is required for ongoing renovation work.

    On your first visit, you probably will share our surprise at the extent to which the cathedral is hemmed in by other buildings, making photography very difficult. Equally, the external stonework shows the effects of centuries of soot and dust (Photos 2,3).

    One of the building’s highlights is the richly decorated mosaic tiled roof. If there is a clear view of the entire south side roof from the old city area, we were unable to find it. Fortunately, a view of the northern roof with the Austrian coat of arms is possible from the Reisenrad giant ferris wheel at the Prater (Photo 4) (NB binoculars or a long telephoto are required). Another photographic hint – the late afternoon sun (heading photo) is much kinder than the morning light, and from a more suitable direction.

    Stephansdom, late afternoon Stephansdom (panorama), morning. Stephansdom (panorama), morning. The mosiac roof (northern side)
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  • TheWanderingCamel's Profile Photo

    Mediaeval majesty

    by TheWanderingCamel Updated Feb 22, 2009

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    For over 800 years now, the jewel in Vienna's eccliastical crown has been the magnificent cathedral known as the Stephansdom. Nothing remains of the original 12th century cathedral but, as it stands today, the building is a glorious combination of mostly Romanesque and Gothic styles with some later Baroque elements.

    The oldest section is the west door (known as the Giant's Doorway) which is flanked by two steepled towers (known as either the Heathen Towers, for the pagan shrine that once stood on this site, or, alternatively, the Roman Towers) - dating from the 13th century. Almost all the rest - nave, choir and side chapels and steeple - was built through the years of the 14th and 15th centuries in High Gothic style, while the north tower with its pretty ogee-roof is an as-yet-unfinished 16th century Baroque addition that houses the mighty Pummerin bell, made from the melted-down cannons of the defeated Turks .
    The absolute crowning glory of the cathedral is its steep-pitched roof, the tiles (over a quarter of a million of them) laid out in dazzling diaper and chevron patterns with two huge panels featuring the double headed eagles of the Hapsburgs and the Austrian coat of arms.

    The cathedral's vertical lines and narrow perspectives (it sits on a very cramped space for such a massive building) emphasize its height. It towers over the roofs of the Innerstadte and it's quite difficult to get a good look at it from the close confines of the old city. Fortunately, there are several high spots around the city from which you can get a good sighting.

    The cathedral was very badly damaged by fire during WWII. A massive restoration effort saw it rise again as the symbol of the city but , as is always the case with such buildings, the need for restoration is constant, ongoing and very expensive. Currently it is the south tower that is shrouded in scaffolding. When that is finished, it will be something else. Please don't begrudge a donation to this work.

    Stephansdom Heathen Towers Hapsburg eagles on the roof Tight perspectives up close Full view from afar
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  • breughel's Profile Photo

    Very dark interior.

    by breughel Updated Sep 21, 2012

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    On my previous trip I visited the church and the catacombs and must confess that I was not "begeisterd" to use a German word meaning enthusiasmed.
    From outside I certainly appreciate the originality of the roof decoration (makes me think of Burgundy) but I have seen other Gothic edifices in Europe making me feel more enthusiast.
    It is not a matter of not looking enough at the Stephansdom because on this new trip my hotel room had a view on the main entry called the "Riesentor" Giant's Door and the "Heidentürme", that each stand at approximately 65 meters tall. The name for these towers on the west front derives from the fact that they were constructed from old structures built by the Romans ("Heiden" means pagan) during their occupation of the area.

    This part, the oldest of the church, was undergoing renovation (2011). To hide the works a canvas painted like the real church looked covers the walls. Photo 1 shows the renovated part, photo 2 the works going on above the entrance hidden by the painted canvas. The renovation is now (2012 ref. my new tip) finished.

    I also went inside several times but did not pay for an audio guide because the church was so dark that I would have needed infrared spectacles to see something of the announced "wealth of art treasures".
    I know some churches where the visitor has to put some coins in a trunk to get light but at St. Stephen's Cathedral I saw no lights and found no paying device to get some.
    There are guided tours; maybe that the guides have flashlights.
    Sorry for this negative comment but I can only tell you what I did not see.

    Restored part of north Canvas hiding
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  • tiabunna's Profile Photo

    The interior is the best

    by tiabunna Updated Jul 28, 2007

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    When Pauline first saw St Stephan's, she was a little disappointed that the cluttered setting of the cathedral detracted from the impression she had gained from the TV shows. What we found inside though, more than overcame any reservations she may have had, and we returned several times during our stay.

    Inside, the Gothic ceilings soared skywards, their height emphasised by white banners draped for a forthcoming musical performance (main photo); the giant pipe organ above the entrance looked most imposing and we both wished we’d been able to hear it (Photo 2); at the other end, the richly decorated High Altar, with its painting of the stoning of St Stephan, was quite ornate (Photo 3); and there was the famous pulpit, with its small stone dog at the top of the curved banister keeping back the cane toads and lizards (symbols of evil) (Photo 4) while the unknown stone sculptor with his chisel (Photo 5) peered out of his stone window. And everywhere, as can be seen in several of these photos, were the endless crowds.

    Yes, St Stephan's is indeed well deserving of its popularity.

    Soaring ceilings (vertical panorama) Pipe organ above entrance High Altar (sorry about overexposed background) The ornate pulpit The anonymous stone sculptor
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  • Escadora7's Profile Photo

    The towers of St. Stephen

    by Escadora7 Updated Apr 4, 2011

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    St. Stephen has 2 major towers - South tower and North-tower, both can be conquered.
    We first went after the North-tower (Nord-turm, 68.3m), which was quite simple: go to the giftshop in the church, buy a ticket, and the elevator will take you up in no time - the view over Vienna is spectacular. (Yes, it is also incredibly unnerving if you suffer from vertigo like some of us...) Up on top of this tower you can glance at Vienna's most famous bell, the "Pummerin" (21,383 kg). The tower also provides an unusually close look at the famous roof of St. Stephen's tower. The North Tower is the shorter of the 2 towers, since building in the Gothic style ceased after 1511 and the tower remained unfinished to this day.

    Next we went around the outside the church on search for the door to enter the South tower. The South Tower (Sudturm, 136.44m) was completed in 1433 (the Viennese have given it the nickname Steffl, which also denotes the whole cathedral). This tower, one of Vienna's most famous landmarks, is lit at night and can be seen all over Vienna. This time there was no elevator, so we had to climb the stairs...and climb....and climb....and climb...... 343 steps. It was a little disappointing to arrive at the top and all there is, is a little wooden room with windows (yes - really nice view) and yes - another giftshop.... but it was worth it just to be able to say "We climbed the South tower!"

    View from North Tower onto roof St Stephen couldn't have been prouder
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  • TheWanderingCamel's Profile Photo

    To the glory of God

    by TheWanderingCamel Updated Oct 4, 2006

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    So you've gazed up at the Stephansdom, walked around the building, taking in detail of the exterior, now it's time to look inside. Like all the venerable cathedrals of Europe, the Stephansdom is a wonderful cornucopia of periods and styles. Each succeeding generation has left their mark in the form of the ornamentation of the church, leaving an overall impression of incredible richness. From the Gothic to the Renaissance and on to the Baroque, there are side chapels and tombs, altar screens and statues, beautiful stained glass and acres of gold leaf, exquisite carving in stone and wood, and from about 9am onwards ... hordes of tourists clustered around their guides as this feature or that is pointed out and described in minute detail. You could be forgiven for thinking that this place is simply another museum.

    Come earlier, at 8 or so and you will find a very different scene. Calm, quiet dignity. Mass being said to a small group of worshippers in a side chapel. A few people like you, slowly making their way up and down the aisles, sitting a while on a pew in contemplation of some detail of the building around them, gazing with intense absorption at the expression on a saint's face. This is when you really understand what these great edifices mean to their cities and the people who know them and claim them as their own. How master stonemasons and woodcarvers could work for years creating such masterpieces. When you slip out of a side door, you may leave without having seen every last polychromed triptych or gently smiling saint, you may not know what year saw this chapel dedicated or that tomb added, but you will take with you some of the awe, and the succour, they have inspired in people for centuries .. a connection to those mediaeval souls for whom the worship of God was made manifest in their cathedral.

    The main altar Glowing glass Masterpieces everywhere Triptych
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  • TheWanderingCamel's Profile Photo

    A walk around the Dom

    by TheWanderingCamel Updated Oct 13, 2006

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    Before you make your way inside the Stephansdom, do take some time to have a good look at least some of the sculptures and frescoes that adorn the exterior. Prior to 1735 the area along the side walls and around the back of the cathedral was used as a cemetery and many of the memorials on the outer walls relate to that use. Particularly notable are the newly-restored relief of Christ praying in the Garden of Gethsemane as his Apostles sleep and the pulpit of St Johannes Capistrano with its depiction of the saint triumphing over the defeated Turk in celebration of the victory of the Battle of Belgrade on 1456. There are delicate traceries of stone, statues of saints and worthies, reliefs of Biblical scenes, elaborately carved lintels, a memorial marking the spot where Mozart's corpse was blessed on its way to the grave. The frescoes are somewhat hidden by a protective mesh as work continues on the restoration of the south tower.

    Funerary monument Saint Johannes Capistrano pulpit Gethsemane Sttaues and traceries of stone Christ with a toothache
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  • Escadora7's Profile Photo

    St. Stephen's no Goth!

    by Escadora7 Updated Nov 11, 2005

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    It was the first day Ashley was supposed to meet my mom, so what better place than to get the two hopelessly Catholic people in my life meet at a Church - not just any church: St. Stephen's Cathedral! Located on St. Stephen's square in a pedestrian only area, and surrounded by some of Vienna's most exclusive shopping streets, this gothic church dominates not only the center of Vienna but also Viennese culture.

    Once you exit the underground the church stares smack-bang into your face - Ash's catholic nature was so in awe that he got lost in the crowd staring open-mouthed at the tower. [Ash and the truth: THATS NOT TRUE-Eva points out the tower to me as we get out of the underground ... so there I am all lost in awe staring open-mouthed at the church, and when I turn around .. EVA's GONE!!!!! Thats when I try to locate her from a crowd of tourists, and a few moments later I see her hugging her mom. Mom gives me a bear hug, scolds Eva, and then we all go into church..smiling away! - Back to Eve]

    Anyways, the church was built between the 12th and 14th century, destroyed and rebuilt several times because of wars, and thought completely lost after WW-II, but once again the Viennese decided on rebuilding their beloved church. Upon entering, one is awed by the beauty of the gothic architecture. The smell of frankinscense, the many candles lit for the souls of the departed, basins with holy water, and people kneeling in prayer gives you a feel of content somberness. We quietly walked around the church, admiring the artfully decorated walls, and successfully located the "Fenstergucker" (a small self-portrait of the church's architect, hidden under a stairway). We then went on to conquer both towers. In the back of the church is a little giftshop that offers books, cards, rosaries, medallions, pendants, and all sorts of souveniers. There is also the option of visiting the extensive catacombs underneath the church, but we'll keep that option for our next visit!

    Inside St. Stephen's Ash &  Eve on Stephansdom Ash & mom on Stephansdom St. Stephen's St. Stephen's
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  • toonsarah's Profile Photo

    Stephansdom – the towers

    by toonsarah Updated Jul 6, 2014

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    The cathedral has two towers which are noticeably different in height, and both of which can be climbed for close-up views of the colourful roof and out over the city to the countryside beyond. The South Tower is the tallest at 137 metres high, and you must climb 343 steps to reach the Türmer Stube near the top. If you want to do this, the entrance is outside the cathedral on the south side – look for the signs. Note that ongoing restoration work means that your view, though high, will be blocked in places. See website for more details of this option. This South Tower is also affectionately known as “Steffl” – the suffix “l” in Austrian German is a diminutive, so this means “little Stephen” – surely ironic, given the height!

    We didn’t tackle the 343 steps but instead went up the shorter North Tower which has a lift. This tower is also known as the Pummerin (the name of its huge bell) and sometimes the Eagle Tower – I think a reference to the eagle crests on the roof visible from its top (see photo five).

    As well as this striking roof and the city views, you can get a close-up look at that huge old bell, the Pummerin itself. This is a 1951 replacement for the original, which was destroyed, having crashed to the floor below when its wooden cradle was burned in the fire of 1945. That original had been cast in 1705 from 208 of the 300 cannon captured from the Muslim invaders in the Second Turkish Siege of Vienna, and this one reused most of that with the addition of some of the remaining cannon that had been on display in the city’s military museum. It is the third largest swinging bell in Europe, weighing 20,130 kg (44,380 lb). The swinging mechanism is operated electrically whereas the old bell needed a 16 men to pull on the bell rope and swing the heavy bell back-and-forth for 15 minutes before the clapper would even strike it! When the mechanism threatened to damage the south tower (in which it was in those days located) this system had to be abandoned and instead the clapper was pulled – even that operation needed eight men to pull its heavy ropes.

    But enough of the bell – you are here mainly for the views, I am guessing! You’ll be able to pick it many of Vienna’s main landmarks, including the famous big wheel at the Pater and numerous churches. Beyond are the equally famous Vienna Woods. There are helpful plaques pointing out the main features visible. Closer you can look down on the bustle of Stephansplatz below and as I have mentioned already, get a close-up look at the distinctive roof tiles and some of the gargoyles. It’s impressive to see the quality of craftsmanship that went into creating these stone marvels even though relatively few people would get to see them.

    My photos show:
    Photo one – roof and view west towards Grinzing and the Vienna Woods
    Photo two – coats of arms of the City of Vienna and of the Republic of Austria
    Photo three – Prater wheel
    Photo four – sheep gargoyle – I loved this!
    Photo five – the taller South Tower

    Next tip: Fiakers

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  • Fam.Rauca's Profile Photo

    Stephansdom, Vienna's most prominent landmark

    by Fam.Rauca Updated May 23, 2006

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    The STEPHANSDOM is the means's point of Vienna, and its most important symbol.
    The Viennese name it "Steffl".
    The prominent building is placed, in centre of the city, and is visible, from throughout Vienna. It is 108 m long, 39 m wide, and 137 m of high.
    The construction of the cathedral began in the 12th century, in the year 1147, as a Romanesque basilica.
    This church was burned down twice.
    Under the order of the King Ottokar II of Bohemia, began in the year 1260, the construction of a Romanesque church.
    From this construction, it remained the Giant Gate (Riesentor) and the west facade of the cathedral, with its Heath Towers (Heidentürme).
    In the year 1359 began the rebuilding of the church, in the Gothic style.
    The Foyer Choir (Hallenchor), the Nave, and the South Tower were erected in this time.
    Beginning of the 16th century, the construction, at the North Tower, was broken, because of the dangers of the Turks.
    In the year 1579, this tower was covered, with a tower helmet.
    The Stephan cathedral remained relative intact after the Turk sieges, but in year 1945, it suffered heavy damages, under a big fire, almost at the end of the World War II.
    In the year 1948 began the re-construction of the cathedral, with the population's support from whole Austria. It lasted seven years.
    The "Steffl" was transformed into the people cohesion’s symbol, after the horrors of the war.

    Stephansdom Stephansdom Stephansdom Stephansdom Stephansdom
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  • nicolaitan's Profile Photo

    The Iconic Center of Vienna

    by nicolaitan Updated Mar 27, 2010

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    The massive Stephansdom is the Vienna's largest church, at the epicenter of the Old City, and the major church for the Archbishopric of Vienna. Based on recent excavations for a heating system, it may occupy the site of Vienna's oldest church going back to the 4thC based on carbon dating of skeletal remains. The earliest documented church is a Romanesque structure from 1137. Today's structure was commissioned in 1359 when Emperor Rudolf V used it to lobby for a bishopric for his growing capitol city. Construction and reconstruction have continued to the current day as the church has faced multiple wars, Turkish sieges, Napoleon, and two world wars. History states that the retreating Nazi forces were ordered by the city commandant, one Sepp Dietrich, to destroy the church but it was saved by a Nazi army captain Gerhard Klinkicht who disobeyed the order. WWII damage during the Russian occupation of the city was fire-related and quickly rebuilt.

    My many photographs of Stephandom are undoubtedly being enjoyed by the dastardly criminal who lifted Proserpina's pocketbook at the Nordsee restaurant ( not that i am going to dwell on this ). Fortunately there are a host of superb descriptions of the church already available. So - a few photos and descriptive highlights.

    St. Stephen's is big, 350 ft long and 130 ft wide, and the south tower ( images 1,2 ) extends up 445 ft, for many centuries the tallest structure in Europe. Construction took 65 years (1368-1443). During the Turkish sieges, it was the watchtower and command post for the defensive forces. As late as the mid 20th C the tower housed fire marshals who watched over the city. Up at the top is the double eagle imperial emblem with a Habsburg coat of arms.
    The stubby north tower is only half as tall. Originally designed to match the south tower, construction was halted in 1511. Legend states the the architect Puchspaum made a covenant with the devil to guarantee successful completion of the tower agreeing never to utter a sacred name. After he broke the vow, the Devil threw him off the top of the tower with all the plans and building stopped at that point. The short tower was covered with a cap and construction was finished. One can apparently go up to the top of both towers for presumably remarkable views of Vienna. The tiled roof ( image 3 ), a 1950's addition, must be spectacular up there as even from the street the white, green, black,and yellow tiles in geometric patterns featuring on one side the Austrian Empire coat of arms and on the other the coat of arms of the city of Vienna and the country of Austria. Internet estimates for the number of tiles range from 230000 to over 500000.

    St. Stephan's faces southwest unlike most cathedrals, oriented to the axis of the rising sun on St. Stephan's day December 26 1137 in honor of the first sainted martyr. The side walls are filled with reliefs ( image 4 ) taken from the cemetery area on which the first 12thC church was built.

    The interior of St. Stephen's is uberGothic ( image 5 ), overwhelming heavy and with a pervading sense of darkness within. And crowded, with multiple services per day and innumberable tourists and groups. There are plenty of things to see here, but in the absence of images, best left to the descriptions of others.

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    A walk from the Stephansdom to the Opera.

    by breughel Updated Oct 15, 2012

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    The previous photo from Dabs shown here above by VT is not the Karntnerstrasse but the Graben with the Pestsaule. There is work for the Travel Editors when they will be active on VT!

    The shops on the Karntnerstrasse are the ones you will see in any European city. What is nice on the Karntnerstrasse is the fact that it is only pedestrian and that there are a number of terraces on the street.
    Nice is the side street leading to the Neuer Markt.
    But best part is that at the Opera.
    See my tip Opera live and free on the square
    In the evening we much liked to walk from the Stephansdom to the Opera.

    Karntnerstrasse at night near the Opera.
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  • St Stephan's Dom

    by Mariajoy Updated Apr 4, 2011

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    This beautiful Gothic cathedral has thousands of visitors every year and they all seemed to be there on the day I visited. They were all milling around outside the cathedral on a hot Saturday August afternoon with the ubiquitous street artists and performers found in most cities - but inside it was cool and shady and quiet. Entrance is free but of course donations are always gratefully accepted.

    The foundations of this cathedral date back to 1147 and the tiled roof (250,000 tiles to be exact!) was constructed with the design of the Hapsburg coat of arms in 1490. It was restored after fire damage in WWII.

    Roof of the Cathedral
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  • toonsarah's Profile Photo

    Stephansdom

    by toonsarah Updated Jul 5, 2014

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    In the heart of Vienna’s 1st district, its city centre, sits Stephansdom, a magnet that seems to draw tourists and locals alike. The streets around it and Stephansplatz itself are always busy – it is the place to meet, the place to relax, and of course for many still, the place to worship. It is also seen as the emblem of Austria and symbol of Austrian identity, as the coats of arms emblazoned in colourful tiles on its roof will testify.

    There has been a church dedicated to St Stephen on this site since the middle of the 12th century, but that original building has suffered several almost total destructions and been rebuilt each time. A fire in 1258 left it in ruins and a new church was built on the foundations, which was consecrated on 23 April 1263, an event still marked each year by the ringing of the great bell, the Pummerin. During the 14th and 15th centuries the church was expanded, with choirs and transepts added, and eventually, in 1430, the old structure was removed to leave something like what we see today. The south tower was completed in 1433, and foundation for a north tower was laid in 1450, although this was abandoned when major work on the cathedral ceased in 1511. It did get finished eventually, in 1578, but to a much lower height.

    St. Stephen's Cathedral was severely damaged by fire in the last days of the Second World War and virtually reduced to rubble. This was despite the efforts of Captain Gerhard Klinkicht, leading the retreating German forces, who ignored an order to "fire a hundred shells and leave it in just debris and ashes” in order to preserve it. Unfortunately however local looters caused the damage that he had prevented, when fires they started in the surrounding shops spread to the cathedral - the roof collapsed, much of the structure was reduced to rubble and some of the valuable art works were lost, including some beautiful 15th century choir stalls. Others however, such as the pulpit, survived, protected by brick walls built for the purpose. Rebuilding began immediately and took just seven years; Vienna’s emblem had risen once more from the ashes.

    Today a visit here is a must if you want to sense something of the Viennese character and pride in their history. The first thing to strike most visitors is the unusual ornate and richly coloured roof, covered with 230,000 glazed tiles. On the south side these form a mosaic of the double-headed eagle symbolic of the Habsburg while on the north side the coats of arms of the City of Vienna and of the Republic of Austria are depicted. The best way to see these is to go up the towers – see next tip for more about this.

    But at ground level there is also much to admire. Outside the walls are adorned with a large number of memorials, carvings and other details to attract the camera, and the great doors
    Look out too for the large “O5” symbol carved in the wall to the right of the entrance – the 5 was intended to represent an E and therefore “OE” = “Ö” = “Österreich”, that is Austria. The symbol is nowadays under protective glass.

    The interior is beautiful and full of interest too of course. The 17th century marble high altar has a painting depicting the stoning of St Stephen, the cathedral’s patron saint. He is flanked by a number of local saints (Leopold, Florian, Sebastian and Rochus) while above him St Mary points the way to heaven (St Stephen was the first Christian martyr).

    Elsewhere look out for the Wiener Neustädter Altar at the head of the north nave, with a beautifully carved and gilded triptych (only open on Sundays and feast days), and the stunning gothic pulpit. If you want to really take in everything here, rent an audio guide or join one of the regular guided tours.

    It is best to visit at the following times if you want to avoid church services and be able to look all over the cathedral:
    Monday to Saturday: 9.00 - 11.30 and 13.00 – 16.30
    Sundays and Public Holidays: 13.00 – 16.30
    You can access certain parts, around the sides, without paying, but entry to most of it entails paying a small fee. You pay extra for the catacombs and towers (see below) and if you want an audio guide. We had been before, many years ago, so on our “sightseeing visit” this time we only strolled around the perimeter and went up one tower. That was on the Monday ...

    Alternatively you can of course attend a Mass, without charge (though I hope you would make a donation in the collection!). On a Sunday morning the main service, at 10.15, has music arranged by the cathedral’s music section and advertised in advance on the website (see below). We went and heard beautiful singing of a mass by Schubert which was also being broadcast on national radio.

    My photos show:
    Photo one – the interior from near the entrance
    Photo two – relief portrait of Anton Pilgram who sculpted the pulpit, near the entrance to the north tower (thought to be a self-portrait)
    Photo three – the impressive west front
    Photo four – one of a number of memorials from the time the area outside the cathedral was a cemetery, now mounted on its exterior walls (this one is on the west front, left of the main door) Photo five – the pulpit known as the Capistran, which these days is mounted outside the cathedral (north east corner) – from this, St. John Capistrano and the Hungarian general John Hunyadi preached a crusade in 1456 to hold back Muslim invasions of Christian Europe

    Next tip: the cathedral towers

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