This is the most important saint of all, the seven bishops who founded Brittany and then there is Sainte Anne
There were seven who founded the religious beliefs of this wonderful region, Saint Brieuc,Saint Tugdual, Saint Paul Aurélien, Saint Patern,Saint Corentin, Saint Samson, and Saint Malo.
however, to explain Sainte Anne, i take from the sanctuary text;
Saint Anne was the wife of St. Joachim, mother of the Blessed Virgin Mary, grandmother of Jesus the redeemer. She was a Jew who lived in Sepphoris near Nazareth in Galilee then in Jerusalem in Judea. The Bible tells us nothing about the parents of the Virgin Mary. The oldest document that talks of them is the apocryphal ‘Protoevangelium of James’ which speaks of Judean tradition dating back to the first half of the second century. The cult of Saint Anne grew in the East first, in the spreading of the cult of the Virgin Mary, most particularly in the mystery of the Immaculate Conception, the Nativity and the Presentation in the Temple.
July 26th probably marks the anniversary of the dedication of a basilica in Constantinople erected in honour of Saint Anne in the 6th century. The Franciscans have listed it on their calendar as July 26th , 1263. Worldwide, St. Anne was venerated and prayed to in a significant number of places of worship, basilicas, churches and chapels. Among these number, in Rome, the parish church of St. Anne in the Vatican, in Jerusalem, the Basilica of St. Anne de Beaupre in Quebec, in Congo in the Church of St. Anne in Brazzaville, in Asia, Burma and Ceylon. In France, the first sanctuary dedicated to St. Anne was the ancient cathedral of Apt in Vaucluse, in the 11th century.
In Brittany, and manifestly in the Auray region, the cult of Saint Anne is historically connected to the first evangelization of Armorique, in the 7th and 8th centuries. According to some theories, "Ana" was the name of a Celtic deity worshipped previously in this area, which would seem to have favoured the spreading of the cult of Mary's Mother . The diocese of Vannes has celebrated St. Anne from the early 15th century at least. Pope Gregory XIII extended the feast to the entire Latin Church in 1584. St. Anne has become the patron saint of Brittany. Almost all Breton churches have their statues of Saint Anne and many chapels, villages and localities are under her patronage. The Bretons, over the centuries, have introduced many religious festivals (pilgrimages) , the most important being that of Sainte-Anne d'Auray.
see my basilica tip on it, but the local city hall has a bit of history too, such as, Until the 17th century, the hamlet of Ker Anna was inhabited by some 40 inhabitants, labourers, farmers or breeders. One of these labourers to name was Yves Nicolazic. It was very pile and generous.
In 1623, he attended several appearances of Ste-Anne, mother of Mary, grandmother of Jesus. One of these appearances allowed him to discover an old statue of the Saint at the same place where had built a chapel in the 6th century. Following this discovery and the influx of pilgrims, Yves Nicolazic had built a chapel in his honour but it soon became cramped and the basilica was then built.
It is the second visited religious site in France after Lourdes. July 26 is the date.
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The Cloisters of Ste Anne d Auray
Tuck on the side of the grand Basilica, there is an entrance to come in to the cloisters right by the treasury and store of the complex.
At the cloisters there is held temporary and permanent exhibition of arts, and paintings from many periods. I pass by here often as live within 10 kms and on my way to work, so finally decided to go in as there was an expo on the top 40 religious objects from the Morbihan department. I was not disappointed, it was fantastic and very nicely done.
The exhibition of religious artifacts from many churches and chapels in the Morbihan deparment on expo at the Cloisters of the basilica of Sainte Anne d’Auray. This runs thru October 11 2013 and its free with a contribution as you wish. Hours 14h to 18h every day. The display on the two floors of the cloister centered around 40 pieces of religious art. Coming from the pays de Vannes and Vilaine are statues of Mercure painting of Saint Patern, scupltures of Saint Roch and Saint Sébastian etc. Pays de Ploëmel (pays means region), is sculptures of Saint Anne , painting of donation of rosary 17C, sculpture of Saint James, etc. Pays de Cornouaille morbihannaise and Pontivy, wooden poly of the virgin and the child, 16C, etc. Pays de Lorient and Auray, chinese porcelain virgin of Sainte Anne, , the bust relics of Saint Cornély in golden wood, etc. There is a guided tour at 15H every day. Nice introduction to us to get to know our area, and the opportunity to see rare objects from several churches at once.
The cloister is the only remaining building from the 17C, and a historical monument of France. On top there is a gallery where permanent and temporary expositions are held such as the one above.
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Look up to St Anne
St Anne was the mother of the Virgin Mary, so the fact that she's the patron saint of women in various roles (women in labour, housewives, grandmothers and unmarried women) isn't very surprising, although her link to cabinet makers and horser riders would seem a little more baffling.
She was adopted as Brittany's patron saint in 1914 and is certainly quite a drawcard, as she attracts 600,000 pilgrims a year, a number that has significantly increased since Pope John Paul II visited in 1996.
As you might expect, the town of Sainte-Anne d'Auray is fairly bristling with statues to St Anne. I was particularly taken by this one which stands in a shady area of the gardens to one side of the War Memorial. Quite apart from its considerable artistic merit, it is also massive - at least double life size - and very imposing.
Was it really necessary to put lipstick on a Pope?
St Anne d'Auray is 'big' on John Paul II, which is not surprising, as he visited here on 20 September 1996. It's not every place of pilgrimage that manages to attract a Pope during his papacy, and there has been a noticeable upswing in pilgrim numbers since his visit - currently about 600,000 per annum, with the largest number visiting on 26 July, the Grand Pardon of St Anne (her saint's day).
Ever one to seek out the bizarre, this image of JPII overlooking the basilica caught my attention because of his startlingly crimson mouth. Surely our pale Polish erstwhile Pope didn't really wear red lipstick (even if it is nicely colour coordinated with his robes)?
The somewhat baffling Scala Sancta staircase
This ornate set of steps stand at the opposite end of a huge lawn from the Basilica and have no visible signage. They have no obvious purpose since they lead from nowhere to nowhere over an unthreatening section of gravel, and had me bamboozled for a good while until I did some background research.
It turns out that the Scala Sancta ('Holy Steps' in Latin) were constructed in the early 17th century and originally formed a gateway to the shrine of St Anne. However, the when the decision was taken to build the huge basilica in the 1860s, the steps were carefully dismantled and reassembled in their current location, a couple of hundred metres away.
This is a beautiful - if effectively functionless - structure, but their design is slightly out of keeping with the basilica and the war memorial, which made them feel all the more obselescent.
The heartrending Breton Wall of Remembrance
The Wall of Remembrance at the Breton war memorial is a place that I'll never forget for a whole host of reasons.
Firstly, it's staggeringly beautiful in its pared back simplicity. The pale stone panels listing the war casualties village by village are interspersed by the Stations of the Cross (fourteen events in the trial, crucifixion and burial of Jesus) which are depicted as simple line drawings.
Secondly, the wall is extraordinarily long, and encloses a large lawned area with the war memorial as a centrepiece. I had no idea of the scale of Breton casualties in the First World War, and was left speechless when I learned that one in fourteen (7%) of all Bretons was killed between 1914 and 1918 - the highest proportion of casualties inflicted on any nationality in that conflict.
Thirdly, despite the fact that over 8,000 names have been engraved on the wall since it was constructed in 1923, the list of casualties on the wall is in no way complete. Only those who had the money to subscribe to the scheme are named, many opted to record the name of their family rather than individuals, and as a result, at least 100,000 names are missing. If you look carefully at each place name, you will see a number and a cross inscribed next to it, which reflects the total number of casualties from that place, which is often far higher than the number of names that appear below. Take Quiberon in the photo above, for example, where only 18 names are listed, but 103 people were killed.
This is one of the saddest places that I've visited in a long time, and one of the most beautiful monuments to the fallen that I've ever seen.
Pause for a moment at the exquisite war memorial
One million Bretons answered the call up during World War I, but a horrifying 25% never returned, about double the rate of casualties suffered by other French troops. The 250,000 Bretons died equates to one in fourteen of Brittany's entire population, leading to a whole slew of social problems in postwar society, including a severe gender imbalances and labour shortages.
The logical question why the Breton troops were so disproportionately represented in the casualties. From what I've read, there is still a lingering sense - as with troops from the British colonies in other theatres of the same war - that they were deployed by their (French) commanders as 'cannon fodder' on the battlefields of Flanders. I'm not knowledgeable enough on military history to comment on whether this is realistic or not.
The war memorial in Sainte-Anne d'Auray was established to commemorate the Breton war casualties in World War I (optimistically billed as "The War to End All Wars) and constructed between 1923 and 1932 ... unfortunately just in time for the next world war. To commemorate those who have given their lives in subsequent conflicts, an adjacent war memorial was established.
The monument itself is a delightful structure, overlooking an impossibly well manicured lawn and surrounded by a heartrending wall of remembrance to the Breton dead.
The war memorial has an altar at its core, which is protected by an exquisite blue and gold mosaic ceiling. Just remember that the presence of an altar means that this is a consecrated (holy) space, so treat it with the respect it deserves, which involves maintaining a respectful silence and not touching or climbing on the altar table.
The staggeringly massive Basilica of St Anne
Before we visited Brittany, I'd not heard anything about Sainte-Anne d'Auray, and it was only a short but intriguing comment in our guidebook that persuaded us to take a detour through the town on the way back from Carnac.
As soon as we turned into town, the huge tower of the Basilica reared into view, and it began to dawn on me that this was not going to be the small shrine to a local patron saint that I'd been expecting. But even that wasn't enough to prepare me for the gargantuan scale of the massive basilica in what is little more than a village suburb of nearby Auray.
The adoration of St Anne on this site dates back to the first missionaries who evangelised Brittany in the 6th century and constructed a chapel in her honour. By 1724, the chapel had long since fallen into disrepair. However, interest in her cult was spectacularly reenvigorated when St Anne appeared in a series of visions to what one source charmingly describes as 'a pious ploughman', Yves Nicolazic.
Over a period of two years, St Anne repeatedly instructed Nicolazic to rebuild the ancient chapel. Being of humble class and illiterate, he was an odd choice of champion, but he doggedly persisted in his mission, and eventually persuaded the bishop of Vannes to construct a new chapel to St Anne on the original site.
The new chapel became a major source of pilgrimage over the following centuries and by the late 19th century, had become far too small for the number of pilgrims visiting. The current basilica was constructed between 1865 and 1872. It is a hulkingly austere mass of grey granite that has an imposing presence, particularly from the front, where the oddly positioned flying buttresses emphasise its width rather than its height. Viewed from the side, the vertical and horizontal elements give the building a much more harmoniously proportioned appearance.
Unfortunately we couldn't explore the interior of the basilica as we visited during evening mass. However, we did manage to see the chapel dedicated to Yves Nicolazic, which is on the right hand side, closest to the door. There is an ongoing campaign to have him canonised (elevated to sainthood), a cause that was endorsed by the former Pope, John Paul II, when he visited in 1996.
In 1914, St Anne was officially recognised as the patron saint of Brittany, ironically just before the First World War, in which her newly adopted people would suffer such horrifically disproportionate casualties.
Commemorating the dead in all wars
The appalling Breton casualties in World War I are commemorated in the exquisitely moving Breton war memorial and the surrounding wall of remembrance.
Sadly, humanity displays a depressing inability to learn the lessons of the past, and memorial to commemorate the "The War to End All Wars" was completed less than a decade before the outbreak of the next world war.
With pragmatic fatalism, the subsequent war memorial - also located within the wall of remembrance - was not limited to the commemoration of a single conflict, and instead is dedicated to 'all our fallen in all wars'.
A war memorial that's unashamedly Breton
The one impression that you'll probably come away with from visiting the war memorial in Sainte-Anne d'Auray is that it commemorate Breton - rather than French - war casualties.
Despite attempts to achieve national homogenisation of identity under a French banner, the Breton sense of nationalism remains endearingly robust. To reinforce this point, the main photo here features inscriptions in Breton - Briezh. Despite the somewhat Russian-sounding name, Briezh is a Celtic language that has most in common with Welsh and Cornish. Encouragingly, Breton is still a relatively vibrant language with many native speakers, so you'll probably stumble across it surprisingly often, and not just in road signage and advertising.
Basilique de Sainte Anne d'Auray
you cant missed is the center of every day life in the town of Sainte Anne d'Auray very near me. Sainte Anne is the mother of Mary, grandmother of Jesus according to the Bretons, and it is ,also, their patron saint of all Brittany.
A local farmer Yvon Nicolazic, hears a woman tells him in Breton language "Me zo Anna mamm Mari", which means in French «Je suis la mère de Marie". Which means in English, I am the mother of Mary.
It was on July 25th 1624, on the eve of the feast of Sainte Anne. ON the March 7 of 1625, he receives a call from Sainte Anne, Yvon Nicolazic discovered in his fields near Bocenno , a statue of Sainte Anne coming from an old chapel that was in ruins. This was the signal authentiating the truth of the appearences.
The story goes, and it continues today, I live about 8 kms from there ,and my boys change bus there to school.
In September 20th 1996, Pope Jean-Paul II,came for a pilgrimage to Sainte Anne d'Auray. Here is the official basilica webpage
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