Architecture religious, Toulouse
Au milieu du XI e siècle, l'église devenant trop petite pour accueillir les nombreux pèlerins qui faisaient halte à Toulouse sur le chemin de Saint-Jacques de Compostelle, on commença, sous la conduite de Raymond Gayrard, vers 1080, la construction du chevet de la vaste église actuelle. Le pape Urbain II en consacra le coeur le 24 mai 1096.
In the middle of the XIth century, the church becoming too small to welcome the numerous pilgrims who made stop in Toulouse on the path of Saint-Jacques de Compostelle, one began, under the conduct of Raymond Gayrard, toward 1080, the construction of the bedhead of the vast present church. The pope Urbain II dedicated some the heart May 24, 1096.
Fondest memory: La double porte romane, inachevée, de la nef, où la brique domine sur la pierre domine une vaste place.
Les chapiteaux sont ornés d'animaux et de personnages accroupis au milieu d'un lacis végétal.
Au dessus, cinq ouvertures romanes sont surmontées par une rosace.
The double carries Romance, incomplete, of the nave, where the brick dominates on the stone dominates a vast place.
The marquees are decorated of animals and squatting characters in the middle of a plant maze.
To the five Romance openings are surmounted over, by a rose window.
L'ensemble conventuel des Jacobins doit son nom aux Dominicains qui possedaient un couvent, a Paris, rue Saint-Jacques.
En 1229, un riche marchand, Pons Capdenier, legue l'emplacement a l'ordre des freres precheurs (connu sous le nom de Dominicains), cree par Dominique Guzman (Saint-Dominique). Saint-Dominique vecu a Toulouse, et sa maison existe toujours, elle a ete amenagee en musee et l'on peut voir, certains jours, sa chambre, des tableaux. Plus tard, la maison de Dominique et des Dominicains sera l'endroit ou les freres interrogeront (sous la torture) les Cathares*, avant de les envoyer au bucher. Cette maison est desormais connue a Toulouse sous le nom de Maison de l'Inquisition.
Mais, revenons aux Jacobins...
La premiere pierre, du premier couvent et de la premiere eglise, est posee le 24 decembre 1230. Raymond de Falgar, eveque de Toulouse, y celebre, le 5 aout 1234, la canonisation de Saint-Dominique.
The conventual whole of the Dominican friars owes its name to the Dominicans who possessed a convent, has Paris, Street Saint Jacques.
In 1229, a rich merchant, Pons Capdenier, bequeath the site has the order of the preachy brothers (known as Dominicans), create by Dominique Guzman (Saint - Dominique). Saint-Dominique lived has Toulouse, and his house always exists, it has been arranged in museum and one can see, some days, his room, of the pictures. Later, the house of Dominique and Dominicans will be the place or the brothers will interrogate (under the torture) the Cathars, before sending them to the stake. This house is known henceforth has Toulouse under the name of House of the Inquisition.
But, let's come back to the Dominican friars...
The first stone, of the first convent and the first church, is put December 24, 1230. Raymond of Falgar, bishop of Toulouse, there famous, August 5, 1234, the canonization of Saint-Dominique.
A l'interieur, on est surpris par l'ampleur et la hardiesse de l’edifice a deux nefs, se terminant a l'est par un chevet gothique couvert de voutes d'ogives rayonnant autour d'un pilier central : le celebre "palmier" des Jacobins. D'habitude, une eglise est composee d'une nef centrale, et de deux absides de chaque cote.
To the inside, one is surprised by the size and the boldness of the building has two naves, ending has the East by a Gothic bedhead covered with arches of ogives radiating around a central pillar : the famous "palm" of the Jacobins. Usually, a church is composed of a central nave, and of two apses of every rating.
Favorite thing: The French have a way of not flaunting their churches that can drive a phtographer mad if they are single minded about the perfect shot of gothic symmery surrounded by verdant gardens. Churches in France are not museum pieces or works of art to be placed on a pedestal but part of a dynamic cityscape that combines the ancient and the new, the divine and the secular into a functioning, living whole. So treasure the hidden beauty you find in narrow alleys and from secret balconies. And always remember, there is beauty in chaos.
In the night of April 11, 1926, the arrow collapses.
A bell badly stowed, shaken by the wind of Autan, a piece of framework that explodes, of the probably too heavy materials, provokes the fall of the tower, badly constructed, putting an end to the quarrel of bell-tower between St.-Sernin and The Dalbade.
M and Mrs. Denax, bakers, were the two only victims of this disaster.
Fondest memory: In spite of several decisions and a beginning of yard, the bell-tower always remained amputee of its high part.
The tradition wants that the church of the Dalbade is built on an oratory founded in VII th century by St.-Germier, bishop toulousain.
Its interior walls, primitively whitewashed to the lime in order to recall the sanctuary marial of it, gave him the name: Sancta Maria of Ecclesia Alba (St.-Marie of the white church), become " of albata " and frenchified thereafter in Dalbade.
But very quickly the church becomes too small and the competition with other parishes provokes many works :
- réaménagement of the new pentagonal bedhead (1490).
- repairing of the nave (1530).
- construction of a new portal by Michel Colin and its ornamentation by Merigon Talhan (1537).
- realization of a bell-tower confided to Etienne Guyot according to a drawing of Nicolas Bachelier.
May 6, 1548, the church is dedicated by Laurent Allemend, bishop of Grenoble and abbot of St.-Sernin.
At the end the XVI th century, the arrow is finally finished and, with its 83 meters, the bell-tower is higher of 16 meters that the one of St.-Sernin. The arrow will be destroyed at the revolution, because it jeopardized the principle of equality.
At the end the XVI th century, the arrow is finally finished, and with its eighty-three meters, the bell-tower prevails of sixteen meters over the one of St.-Sernin.
The arrow having been destroyed at the revolution (1792), because it jeopardized the principle of equality, one puts back in yard the building.
It is architect's E. Bach that one confides the care to take the first place owing St.-Sernin.
Many historian assigns the first building to St.-Exupere that is to the origin of the construction of St.-Sernin in the V th century.
In the XI th century, bishop Isarn undertakes the reconstruction of the cathedral.
Of the XIII th century subsists the nave, to three bays, so-called " raymondine ", because its construction is assigned to Raymond VI following his absolution June 18, 1209 in the abbey of St.-Gilles.
The facade of 1230 is endowed with a duplicate portal, constructed by Sailor Baudry in the XV th century.
Fondest memory: I don't like the cathedral St.-Etienne for several reasons :
- It has been constructed then revised at very different times, and the successive builders don't seem to have worried of what had been constructed before. The result is this nave that is not in the axis of the apse, of the styles so different (of the Romane to the Gothic and to the Baroque...) that one doesn't know anymore where our reference marks are. Is it to wonder how the believers find again in this place, to what holy to vow themselves ?
- The cathedral is also the place of cult of the upper middle class toulousian. At the time of certain commemorations the access to this place of cult is filtered more or less so that the gratin of the society, those that take themselves for the elite (the Toulouse of in top, according to a famous expression) are not obliged to undergo the people's presence.
My feeling for this monument is therefore of the to artistic and architectural considerations, but as sociological and political.
Built by the stream on the foundations of a former pagan temple, the church of La Daurade protects the city since the night of the times.
The church shelters the black virgin who left by the pilgrims every time that the city is threatened by a serious danger. That it is the epidemics of pestilence, the seat at the time of the crusade of the albigeois, the big fires, or the legendary rises in the water level of the Garonne river, at every time the virgin is invoked, at every time, for the believers, she is supposed to have protected the city of a disaster.
Fondest memory: So on the outside the building is somewhat austere, the tourist who will enter in the church will be surprised pleasantly.
Not to fail to admire the organ, remarkable, and especially, let seduce you by the black virgin...
The Saint-Sernin Basilica
Saint Sernin is the most important and the most superb of restored Romanesque churches in the world.
Saint-Sernin was a major stage on the pilgrim route on the way to Santiago de Compostela. It is the biggest and one of the finest Romanesque churches in the West.
Visit the Basilique St. Sernin.I think this is the most beautiful Basilic that I've seen in my life. The structure is so special! And yes, pink bricks too!
Fondest memory: Basilique St. Sernin by night!