In German, it is called Wilder-crocus (wild crocus). In Italian Zafferano-salvatico (wild saffron). In French Safran des fleuristes (florist's saffron), safran bâtard (bastard saffron). It's scientific name is Crocus verna.
Enlarge the picture to see that a population in the background is white while another population (not easily seen on the miniature), in the foreground, is violet.
The wild Spring crocus is most of the time violet but white populations (shown on this photo) exist too as well as speckled flowers. It is also cultivatd for its flowers and there exist cultivated varieties of various colors, including yellow. It is a close relative with cultivated saffron (Crocus sativus) but does not give any saffron powder.
This small plant, which belongs to the Iris family, is also very common in the Alps. It can grow well over 2000 m (here close to the pass, 2084 m). In mountain meadows, it blooms immediately after the mantle of snow has melted and it gives carpets with thousands of thousands of flowers.
In English, it is also called cow's-foot, Foal's foot. In French it is known as Pas d'âne (Donkey foot) and sometimes as Pas de cheval. In Italian, it is pie d'Asino, ugna d'asino, ugna di cavallo. All these name evidently refer to the very characteristic shape of the leaves.
The latin name is Tussilago farfara . The name Tussilago comes from the Latin tussis which means cough. This reflects a common use of the plant which as herbal tea.
It is very common in the Alps and is one of the first plant to bloom on the sides of roads or path after snow has melted. The flowers bloom first and the leaves appear only after.