The pharmacist's lab is situated in a beautiful old vault, designed as if you would expect a pharmacist of 19th century to step out of a door and start his daily work :-)
The room is filled with all the lab equipment of early pharmaceutical-technical days, such as retorts, distillation flasks, vessels to catch and separate liquids of different viscosity and density, filtration sets, different presses, crucibles, Berzelius burners, Woulff bottles and many other old instruments – ahhhh, (al)chemist's heaven :-)
Look at the website below, to get an impression of the whole room.
A fascinating room to view – and to smell – is the herb processing room, where herbs were stored and made into medicine. The room is fitted with fresh herbs and smells incredible good (the museum employees seem to refill them from time to time !).
The furniture and equipment are of the Village Pharmacy in Mosbach, mainly from 19th century.
Roots and barks have been pregrinded with special knives and cutting-boards, then in mortars for further crushing.
The big old scale in the middle was used to weigh bigger bulks of herbs.
More material displayed in the showcases - minerals are used as raw materials for medicine since ages.
Silver (Argentum) for example was used to make “lunar caustic” (Lapis infernalis, AgNo3), which was good against gonorrhoea.
Gold (Aurum) mainly was used in alchemy days, but later as well as “potable gold” (aurum potabile) in several healing waters.
Lead (Plumbum) is too toxic to be used internally, so it’s basic lead carbonate “white lead” (Cerusse) was transformed into a white salve, used to dry out eczemas and other pustules.
Also, lead oxide (Lithargyrum, PbO) with adstringing effects, was made into plasters and “lead water” (Aqua plumbum).
Tin (Stannum) was used as “white lead” (Plumbum album”, Plumbum candidum) and used as vermicide – considering the hygienic conditions those days must have been a top sales product (haha).
Tinoxide was good against cramps, hysteria and syphillis, it’s chloride against epilepsy.
Copper (Cuprum), similar as lead, was also only used externally, such as anti-septic in wounds.
Iron as “Blood Stone” (Lapis haematitis, haematite, Fe2O3) and “Magnet Stone” (Lapis magnetis, magnetite, Fe3O4) has been the most important iron minerals, those days as today used to enhance “blood building” and wound treatment.
Pic 1: Some minerals used in the old days,
Pic 2: the “Merck Collection” (as mentioned in the previous tip)
For me the most fascinating part of Pharmacy Museum is the exhibition of plants, animals and rocks, as used for preparing medicine in the old days.
In 28 showcases with more than 1000 exhibits, the “working material” of 17-19th century pharmacists is displayed and excellently described. The exhibition is divided into the 3 parts of nature (regna naturae) – minerals, plants and animals. Also shown are the original instruments of how pills and salves have been manufactured those days.
In a niche, the “Merck Collection” is exhibited as well, a collection of raw materials and drugs which Chem.-Pharm. Merck KgaA (NOT to be confused with US Merck !!) did collect from all parts of the world when it started to develop from Engel pharmacy to the first international chemical pharmaceutical manufacturing company.
Pic 1: Plants: betel nut (enhancing sweating), Campher (against rheumatic fever), cocoa beans (with analeptic alkaloids) and coconuts (as base for salves) are shown and explained in detail;
Pic 2: more plants, such as herbs (dill) and others,
Pic 3: Animals: dried fox lung (pulmo vulpis) helped against severe cough, toads (bufo bufo) were processed (dried and grained) into medicine against the Black Death – the plague, and other skin illnesses, rabbits (tali leporum) were meant to enhance and speed up birth deliveries, and wood-louse (millepedes) was used against buckled or distorted limbs.
(to be continued in next tip)
In the rooms where all the Offizins are exhibited, you’ll see what the people used these days when travelling. Tiny instruments and equipment is on display in showcases, the most beautiful exhibit is an old travel pharmacy case of 17th century, which belonged to a commander. It contained everything, from tiny glass and silver vessels with the medicines to small instruments.
In the German Pharmacy Museum, you will come across 4 offizins, the old pharmacy shops. They nicely show the development over the years, from the first shops in buildings (rather than on old markets).
The table(s) in the middle of the room(s) did not serve as counter, as usually, the customers did not enter the pharmacists’ shops, but were given the medication through a little window. The tables have been used to mix the medicines’ ingredients.
You’ll come across beautiful pharmacy furniture, the famous drawers being still imitated today.
Pic 1: baroque interior of Benedictine monastery in Schwarzach (1724). 2 statues – Aesculap (god of healing) and Hygieia (his daughter) are standing on the preparation table, in their hands the symbol of medicine – snake and staff. The balance is of 1830 (France), having a porcelain pedestal. The mixing table has 60 drawers with ingredients; more ingredients are in the shelf, in beautiful glass vessels.
Pic 2: cherry wood closet and drawer, 1812, of Kronen Apotheke (Ulm, Germany).
Upon entering the Pharmacy Museum, you will learn much about the early stages of pharmacy, from its first idea of legalization in 13th century to it’s industrialization over the years. All the important and trend-setting researchers of these days are mentioned and explained how they have contributed to modern pharmaceutical developments.
In autumn, the local vineyards have their weinfest. There are two such places going up Gaiberg from Leimen - Weingut Clauer and Weingut Bauer.
Going south on Rorhbacher straße, turn left at the light after the bahnstelle (straßenbahn station which is to your left , across is the Famila shopping center). Go up the hill and you'll see the sign for the first vineyard, Weingut Clauer. A few hundred yards more and the sign for Weingut Bauer will be visible. Both are on the left side of the road.
This year's Weingut Clauer's weinfest is on 13-14 September 2008.
Bergfriedhof - mountain cemetery - a fitting name, this cemetery is laid out on a mountain and some paths are really steep.
Probably the most famous grave there is that of Friedrich Ebert, who became the first German president after abolishing monarchy in 1919. He was born in Heidelberg in 1871 and died in 1925. Signs are leading towards his grave.
There are also many old, large family graves from the formerly important families of Heidelberg, often with very interesting ornaments.
To get there, take any S-Bahn or streetcar to the stop Weststadt/Südstadt and enter the cemetery through the side gate there. The main gate cannot be reached this year (2008), because there is construction work going on right outside.
I spotted this plaque in the side of a building as I wandered round the centre of Heidelberg. Its on a small road which runs parallel to the river towards the Old Bridge gate. It's quite small, and above head-height, so easily missed.
I assume it is an indication of ownership (I'm not sure the building was originally a dwelling-place).
I particularly like the bulls head coat of arms: very impressive!
A nice bit of ordinary 17th century Heidelberg.
Next to the old bridge at the old town end there's a funny statue of a monkey with a mirror. You can get your picture taken with a monkey face here. A funny idea I think! I still haven't found out what this is all about (and only now found out that the statue shows a monkey and not a cat) but I will let you know as soon as I find out...
Wahey, now I know:
starxtrouble Sat Jun 17, 2006 16:24 CEST
"The monkey statue is said to represent a prince of heidleberg who had lots of illegitimate children. touch the monkeys outstrectched fingers you will return to heidleberg. touch the mice you will have many children. touch the mirror you will become rich."
A tiny hamlet on the river Neckar. Heidelberg is a university town and there is also an american airbase nearby. There are the ruins of a castle perched high above the old town where poet Johann von Goethe once walked in the courtyard and was maybe inspired by looking down on the old town. You can either walk up the mountainside to the courtyard or you can take a cable car up. There is also a very picturesque old bridge. My wife and I found it very romantic there and I would recommend going there for a short stay while in Germany.
Also a piece of WW2 trivia for you. This is the city where General George S. Patton was killed in an accident while riding in his jeep.
This was the church the knights of Handschuhsheim went to service, and also the place where they are buried.Their crest - the glove - can be seen around the church on many tombstones.Inside there are also several large tombstones, one of them is the tombslab of knight Dietrich and his wife (picture 1). They are kneeling, in order to demonstrate their piousness.
The second picture shows the last knight's family,it was erected at the burial of the last adult knight. He and his wife are shown as grown-ups - large -, while their two children are dressed as adults, but their small size indicates they were children.
Picture 3 shows the tombstone of Hans von Handschuhsheim and his sister, the children in picture 2. The girl, Barabara, died when she was 13, and her brother was killed in a duel with his cousin shortly before his 16th birthday.His grieving mother cursed the cousin's family, predicting they'd also die out. The curse worked, when the cousin died, he left his second wife behind, but no children.
It is interesting that the family history of the knights of Handschuhsheim refers to their fight as a "duel", while the family history of the knights of Hirschhorn calls it a "tournament". Since it took place at midnight on the market square of Heidelberg, I would consider a duel more likely. During a tournament there were spectators, and at midnight they wouldn't have seen very much.
One of Heidelberg's oldest churches is the St.Vitus church in Handschuhsheim. It was first built in 11th century, from 1053 to 1057. Some of these old walls are still preserved, but most of what you see today is from a major renovation in early 15th century. From this period several frescoes have survived, showing the life of Jesus. When you enter the church, turn around and you can see them directly above the entrance and on the walls next to it.
Towards the end of the 15th century the church had to repaired, since it had been damaged in the many battles fought by one of the knights of Handschuhsheim, Dietrich. He was a close friend of the Prince-Elector Frederic I of Heidelberg, something that didn't always work to the advantage of the people of Handschuhsheim. Frederic was nicknamed the "victorious", but in order to be victorious he had to fight many battles first, and much of Heidelberg and surroundings suffered.
In 20th century St Vitus was renovated again, so that today the windows and the altar are modern.
Very much ON the beaten path, but hidden by the vendors' stalls is the image of a brezel, engraved in the walls of the Heiliggeist Kirche on main street. When the market around the church was first started (I heard in 14th century, but I'm not sure here), people liked their brezels as much as today. To make more money, bakers made the brezels smaller and smaller, still asking the same price. To put an end to this, the correct size of a brezel was engraved in the church wall, so that everybody could go and check if his/her brezel was big enough.
You can still see this brezel, best when the stalls are closed. Or take a peek in between them to see it.
I was there early during the time of the Christmas Market and found the stalls directly opposite the Christmas Market not only closed, but gone. So for the first time I could get a really good view of the brezel.