History - World War II, Berlin

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    Hitler's Bunker site

    by toonsarah Written Jun 17, 2011

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    Site of Hitler���s Bunker
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    I hesitated as to whether to include this as a “Thing to Do”, because there really is very little to see here. But it’s such a significant spot historically that it seems worthy of mention. The place where Adolf Hitler had his war-time bunker is now an unprepossessing car-park for an anonymous-looking block of flats, marked only by this very informative notice. When we were there a group of (we think) Israeli tourists were engrossed by all that their guide could tell them, and this made it a little hard for us to get to and read the board. But we found their interest understandable and were more than willing to wait our turn.

    The board describes the layout of the bunker, and the shallower Vorbunker that preceded it here. It describes the different rooms and all that went on there. It also tells the story of Hitler’s last few days. It is very detailed but sticks to the facts, and then goes on to explain what has happened to the site in the intervening years. At no point has it ever been a “tourist attraction” of any sort, as is only right, and I got the impression that it is only quite recently that the spot has been marked in any way, presumably in response to high levels of interest.

    As the board explains, with the Soviet Army closing in on Berlin, Hitler committed suicide in the bunker on 30 April 1945, along with his wife Eva Braun. Their bodies were reportedly cremated and buried just outside the entrance of the bunker. This bunker was located below the garden of the Reichs Chancellery or Reichskanzlei. Following the war, the Communist government razed the ruins of the Chancellery and levelled the area, which was near the Berlin Wall. However, the bunkers remained underground. But in 1988-89, apartment buildings were built on the site of the Chancellery and along Wilhelmstraße, and the bunkers were destroyed in the construction process. The roof of the Führerbunker, which was reinforced concrete some 10 feet thick, was broken up and allowed to fall down into the rooms below, and the whole structure then covered over. The remains now lie under the parking lot seen in my photo, while the entrance would have been behind where I was standing to take it, which today is the middle of a road.

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    Topographie des Terrors

    by toonsarah Written Jun 17, 2011

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    A Wall destroyed
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    This is a sort of outdoor museum, which has been developed on the site of the one-time headquarters of the Gestapo and the SS, the principal instruments of repression during the National Socialist era. Here, between 1933 and 1945, the most important institutions of the Nazi terror apparatus operated from the Secret State Police Office, the Reich SS Leadership, and the Reich Security Main Office. These buildings were largely destroyed by Allied bombing during early 1945 and the ruins demolished after the war. When the city was divided this street, then known as Prinz-Albrecht- Straße, was one of several that had the boundary running down the middle, so when the Wall was constructed it followed that line, dividing the street. The south side, renamed Niederkirchnerstraße, lay in West Berlin, and the Wall that sealed it from the East still stands, the longest stretch of this outer wall still remaining (other long stretches, such as the East Side Gallery and in the Mauerpark, are of the inner wall). This section of Wall is interesting because, unlike elsewhere, it has been left exactly as it was after the assaults on it in November 1989, with exposed iron and crumbling concrete. You can almost sense the hands that wielded the tools that caused these scars ...

    That line of wall now forms the backdrop of the Topographie des Terrors, and the ruins of the Gestapo HQ its base. Originally it was the latter that was the focus of attention, with the excavated cellar, where many political prisoners were tortured and executed, turned into a memorial and museum, in the open air but protected from the elements by a canopy, detailing the history of repression under the Nazis. Since reunification a “proper” museum has been built here (opened May 2010), but on our visit we only looked at the displays still located in that cellar area. This is the “Berlin 1933–1945. Between Propaganda and Terror” exhibition, which focuses on Berlin during the “Third Reich” and looks at National Socialist policy in Berlin and its consequences for the city and its population. The displays were detailed and informative, if rather static, and for me were less emotionally engaging than those we had seen earlier the same day at the Holocaust Denkmal’s Information Centre. Instead I found my main interest in studying the few remaining traces of the Gestapo HQ foundations and reflecting on the horrors (terrors indeed) that were perpetrated here. Various information signs around the site explain the locations and the site’s use during the Nazi period.

    The museum is open every day from 10.00 am – 8.00 pm, and admission is free.

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    Bebelplatz

    by toonsarah Written Jun 18, 2011

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    Bebelplatz
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    About halfway along Unter den Linden, on the southern side opposite Humboldt University and adjacent to the State Opera House, is a large rather bare-looking square. This is Bebelplatz, and it played a significant role in the inglorious story of the rise to power of the National Socialists. On May 10th 1933, more than 20,000 books by Jews, Communists, and Pacifists, including Bertholdt Brecht, Thomas Mann, Karl Marx and many others, all considered subversive by the Nazis, were looted from the university library on its west side and from elsewhere in the city. They were piled high in the centre of the square to be burned by members of the SA ("brownshirts"), SS, Nazi students and Hitler Youth groups, on the orders of the Nazi minister for propaganda and public enlightenment, Joseph Goebbels.

    Today you can peer through a glass panel, set among the paving stones near the opera house, at Michael Ullmann’s underground art installation the Empty Library, with its rows of empty bookshelves a stark reminder of that awful day – although sadly on our visit the pane of glass was misted over and the installation very hard to see. Nearby a bronze plaque (see photo 3) commemorates the event, and next to it another carries a quote from an 1820 work by Heinrich Heine:
    "Das war ein Vorspiel nur, dort wo man Bücher verbrennt, verbrennt man am Ende auch Menschen"
    ("That was only a prelude; where they burn books, they ultimately burn people").

    As well as the opera house and library the square is home to St. Hedwig’s Roman Catholic Cathedral, modelled on the Pantheon in Rome. Across Unter den Linden classical statues look down on the square from the roof of Humboldt University (photo 2), as they would have done on the day of the book-burning. The university was founded by Wilhelm von Humboldt in 1810, although at that time was known simply as the University of Berlin, and later as the Friedrich Wilhelm University, only changing its name to that of its founder in1949. At its gates you are likely to see a book sale being held. The books sold are reprints of those burnt during the Third Reich and the sale is intended to show atonement for the university’s complicity in the burning.

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    Topographie des Terrors

    by sue_stone Updated Apr 4, 2011

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    The area west of Checkpoint Charlie used to be home to some of the most sinister buildings of the Third Reich, such as the Gestapo and Secret Service Headquarters.

    After World War II all of the buildings were demolished except for the cellars. These days, the underground cells now house a very interesting open-air exhibition called the Topographie des Terrors.

    This free exhibit documents the history of the brutal institutions of the Nazi regime that occupied its site and their historical importance. It consists of a large series of photographs with German captions. You can get a free audio guide in English from the information booth, or just walk around as we did, finding that the photos were descriptive enough to help us understand the accompanying text.

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    Berliner Gruselkabinett

    by alancollins Updated May 26, 2012

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    Exterior of the bunker
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    This building was a huge public air raid shelter during WW2 and is now the Chamber of Horrors. It now contains 3 different exhibitions on 3 floors. There are monsters, skeltons and medieval medicine on the upper floors. The lower floor contains an exhibition of the shelters’ original use during WW2. The upper floors are popular with children and the lower floor with the dads. The building has some unusual opening times so check out their website. The cost of entrance for an adult is 9.50 euros.

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    Topographie des Terrors

    by alancollins Updated Jul 26, 2012

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    The new museum
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    Topographie des Terrors is on an area of of landscape ground where the Prince Albrecht Palais once stood. This was the HQ of the Gestapo who were the secret police of Nazi Germany. Though their maximum number never exceeded 45,000 (one third the present number of police officers in England & Wales)throughout the war, they were so feared it is often assumed their number was far greater than this. The buildings were bombed at the end of WW2. After 1945 the area was all in ruins and remained that way until the 1960s when the area was razed to the ground. The site was opened in 1987 as the Topographie des Terrors which had an outside exhibition and you could walk around and markers explain what was where. There is a large surviving portion of the Berlin Wall behind the new outdoor exhibition. A new state of the art building and documentation centre was opened on 07 May 2010. The exhibition charts the history of the Gestapo and SD with some individual personal stories of its prisoners with photographs and an English translation. There are also special exhibitions on display. The museum is normally open from 10am to 8pm and admission is free. The building also contains a cafe, toilets and library. One side of the of the old foundations of the building are available to view under a covered walkway which is in a trench. There are information stations around the grounds giving information on the history of the site. One thing most people miss is walking around grounds, There is a pathway with a number of information stations where the different buildings stood. There are some foundation ruins and driveways. There is a mass of information to take in and if you have the time more than one visit is recommended.

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    The Fuhrer Bunker

    by alancollins Updated Oct 22, 2007

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    Information Board
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    When I first went to Berlin in May 2003 I tried to find out where the Fuhrer Bunker had been located. I had a rough idea where it was but information was sparse and when I asked in the area I was met with blank looks. The bunker was the last headquarters of Hitler and was in fact 2 bunkers that were interconnecting. The bunker was 17m underground with about 30 rooms and the complex was covered by 3m of concrete. Hitler entered the bunker on 16th January 1945 and never left, committing suicide in the bunker on the 30th April 1945.
    In the intervening time from my last visit, the film Downfall had been made and a documentary by a television companies about the bunker. During my visit to Berlin in September 2007 I discovered that attitudes had changed and there is now an information board that had been put up in 2006, indicating where the bunker was located and there is a lot more information on the internet. So what is there? Well apart from the information board not a lot. There is a car park that is in daily use by residents of the nearby flats that covers the bunker underneath. The information available suggests that large parts of the bunker remains under the car park but as the events surrounding the bunker are still recent it may be some time before the bunker may be excavated.

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    Memorial to the victims of Holocaust

    by magor65 Written May 8, 2005

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    to the victims of Holocaust

    The memorial has benn completed very recently. It consists of over 2500 stone blocks of different height symbolizing the gravestones. Here and there a tree has been planted, but all the same the place makes a very stern and depressing impression, which of course must have been the intention of its authors. The place was still fenced when we were there but I imagine that the overwhelming feeling of being lost and lonely must be very intense when you walk among the blocks.

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    WW2 Bunker

    by alancollins Written Jan 20, 2009

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    The front of the bunker
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    I first learnt about this WW2 bunker via VT Member johnjoe55. The bunker was originally built in 1942 and was meant as a refuge against allied air raids for nearby railway workers. The walls and ceilings were more than 1 metre thick and the building has 5 floors, with each floor divided into 8 chambers with seating space for 3000 people. After the end of the war the building has had a number of uses including a shelter for the homeless, storage space for food a night club and its present use being the most unusual as a family home and depository for the owner’s large art collection. The building has had a complete makeover and comes complete with penthouse, swimming pools, garden and 3,000 squares metres of exhibition space. The owner Christian Boros has a contemporary art collection of more than 400 pieces. Pre-arranged visits can be made to view the art collection via the below website.

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    WW2 Bunker Tours-Flakturm III

    by alancollins Updated Aug 22, 2012

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    Flak Tower
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    Whilst searching on the internet for bunkers in Berlin I came upon this website that wetted my appetite. Later on I watched a TV program about the numerous tunnels, bunkers, flak towers and buildings that were used as shelters and the new Germania. I was aware of the flak towers that had been constructed for defence during WW2 but that’s where it ended. I therefore made up my mind to visit the remaining flak tower in Berlin. Most people are unaware of its existence because after WW2 the flak tower in Humboldthain Park was partly blown up on the southern side by the French. The explosives only damaged about half the tower and the concern was that if the rest of the building was blown up it would fall on to the railway cutting below blocking the line. Therefore it was decided to cover over the building with debris and earth to hide it. The 3 flak towers formed a triangle to defend the airspace over Berlin. The park was reconstructed and things seemed to settle down over the years. Over the passage of time a new interest has been born into the history of the tower. The tower in Humboldthain Park was the last of the 3 towers to be built in April 1942. It was originally planned to build 6 towers but lack of materials and cost halted the project. Each flak tower had a command post that was located 300 to 500 metres away and they were linked by underground cables. The command posts were also known as L-Towers had powerful radars and range finders on the roofs. The flak tower had a huge twin barrelled anti aircraft gun on each of the 4 corners. The Humboldthain Flak Tower only had 105mm flak guns until late 1943. This information from the command posts was processed and communicated to the roof top of the flak towers and distributed to the four large corner tower mounted Flak 44 128mm twin mounted flak guns, these had a range of 15,000metres. These guns were protected by smaller calibre machine guns. All three pairs of towers were fitted on their lower platforms with various light flak guns generally of the 20mm and 37mm calibre range, primarily for offensive operations that could engage small low flying allied aircraft. All the weapon systems on both flak towers are also capable of fulfilling a defensive role against both ground and airborne targets. The tower had a compliment of 160 men to man the guns. Towards the end of WW2 the towers were used as a shelter by the general public and they could hold thousands of people. All 3 towers survived the war but the rush was on afterwards to destroy them in case they became a symbol to the Nazis.
    I went on a group tour with an enthusiastic English speaking guide, who was happy to answer any questions and processed an excellent knowledge of the history of the tower. A warm coat and sensible footwear are advised. The website gives good directions where to purchase tickets for the tours. Check times & dates for the various tour tours as some are closed during the winter.
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    The Forced Labour Camp at Schöneweide

    by alancollins Updated May 9, 2013

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    A new exhibition has opened at the Forced Labour Camp at Schöneweide. The exhibition charts the history of the camp, the history of forced labour during the Third Reich and personal accounts of those forced to work. This is a brilliant state of the art exhibition and well worth a visit the same as its related site the Topography of Terror Documentation Centre.
    The Forced Labour Camp at Schöneweide is the last of its kind in Berlin. The reason the buildings still exist was due to the fact that it was built from blocks whereas as the other camps were built from wood. During 1944 there were 420,000 foreign workers in Berlin housed in 3,000 buildings. Some foreign workers worked as servants in private houses and they were housed in those buildings. Thirteen buildings were constructed between 1943 and the end of the war and unlike earlier buildings these were block built due to the now frequent air raids. They were used to house up to 2,160 civilian workers, females prisoners from concentration camps, prisoners of war and forced labour. With approximately 200 prisoners in each block they had to get up early to wash etc due to the lack of facilities. There was a pecking order at the camp with those from western Europe having one day off a week, a small wage and being allowed out of the camp on their day off. Those from eastern Europe had to work seven days a week and not being allowed out of the camp. There were armed SS guards at the camp for security. Workers from the camp had to work in such places the Pertrix battery factory, railway repair yards and the Pierburgs factory which made carburettors and fuel pumps for the military. Pertrix was not a nice place to work due to the harsh conditions. There were no protective clothing and poisonous gases from lead and cadmium. Prisoners from the Sachsenhausen concentration camp were forced to work at Pertrix. As with the concentration camps many deaths occurred due to sickness, no heating, lack of food, the number of hours forced to work and the working conditions. After the war as this area was in the GDR the buildings were put to other civilian uses, including offices, vaccine laboratory, workshops and child care. The camp was rediscovered after reunification but the Documentation Centre was not opened until 2006. A number of buildings have been saved though some are still used by other businesses. Money has been tight but a donation from Pertrix has allowed a new exhibition to be opened on 07 May 2013 and unlike the old exhibits this one has an English translation. Barracks 13 is a slight distance away from the main exhibition site and is the best preserved of the barracks. Visits to Barracks 13 are only by guided tour which have to be arranged in advance, details are available via their website. There are public tours which are published on the website but these are only in German. There is a library for those wishing to carry out research. The exhibition is free including the guided tour of Barracks 13 and the camp is open Tuesday to Sunday 10am to 6pm. There have been attempts to set fire to the camp by Neo-Nazis and signposts to the camp had been turned around. .

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    Topographie des Terrors (Topography of Terror)

    by Kakapo2 Written Jan 3, 2008

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    Depressing location at Hitler's headquarters.

    Located right beside the splendid beauty of Martin-Gropius-Bau the documentation centre “Topographie des Terrors” sets a dramatic and shocking contrast.

    The setting is on a space that hosted the centre of terror of Germany’s Nazi regime from 1933 to 1945. The Führer headquarters (SS), the security service (SD), and the Gestapo with its own prison were located here.

    Only the cellars in which prisoners had been tortured were kept as a monument, all the other buildings were razed, so they could not become shrines of old and new Nazis who have not learnt from history.

    The exhibition is placed along an excavation ditch right under the Wall and documents the terror that happened right behind your back some decades ago. A sombre place.
    They are constructing a building on site which will once become home of this exhibition. I was mostly impressed with this open air exhibition. However, I was there in sunshine, and in winter a visit can be another story, although the panels are sheltered by aves. But I also think you get a better feeling for all the horror of the past by being out there.

    Open 10am – 6pm (Oct – April) and 10am – 8pm (May – Sept)
    Entry free
    Guided tours upon demand, call (030) 25 48 67 03

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    The empty library

    by Sjalen Written Nov 6, 2005

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    Yet another of those moving Berlin sights, this was a must for me. In the middle of the square just outside the Humboldt University's legal faculty is a monument in memory of the awful nazi book burning of 1933, when Jewish, socialist and other so called "non-German culture" books were burnt here by order of Propaganda Minister Goebbels. The famous Heinrich Heine quote from 1821 of "Where they have burned books, they will end in burning human beings." (in German "Dort, wo man Bücher verbrennt, verbrennt man am Ende auch Menschen.") stands out on a plaque in the middle of the paving stones and there is always someone there to look. Next to it is an underground library with shelf after shelf completely empty. A very thought provoking and wonderful monument to remember a sad event.

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    The Soviet War Memorial, Treptower Park

    by alancollins Updated Mar 31, 2013

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    This huge Soviet War Memorial and cemetery took 1,200 workers over 3 years to construct and contains the bodies of 5,000 Soviet soldiers who were killed during the battle for Berlin. The focus of the memorial is a 12m tall statue of a soviet soldier with a sword and holding a child, and standing over a broken swastika. Beneath the statue is a room covered in mosaics where wreaths are laid. In front of the statue is a central area lined on both sides with 16 sarcophagi, one for each of the Soviet Republics. The central area contains the remains of 5,000 Soviet soldiers that were killed during the battle for Berlin. In front of the central area are 2 portals in a stylised flag, that are clad in marble taken from the former Reich Chancellery, these are flanked by two statues of kneeling soldiers. This is one of the larger memorials in Berlin covering an area of 10 acres. As part of the agreement when the Soviets left the memorial is now looked after by the German Government and after renovation a few years ago it has been well looked after.

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    Grosse Hamburger Strasse Memorial

    by alancollins Written Apr 19, 2008

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    Grosse Hamburger Strasse was one of the main streets in the Jewish Quarter of Berlin until the rise of the Third Reich.
    On the site of the former cemetery, which was destroyed during the war, there now stands a memorial sculpture of men, women and children awaiting there unknown fate and an accompanying plaque. The site was used as a collection point during the war, for Jews waiting to be transported to the concentration camps.

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