The northern part of Syros is mountainous and the island
stands out in general for the variety of the landscape in its
hinterland, where hills alternate with low-lying farming areas.
The coastline is indented with inlets of all sizes between capes.
There are two large bays, of Ermoupoli to the east and Finikas
to the west. Archaeological excavations have shown that Syros was
inhabited in Neolithic times.
Digs at Kastri and Halandriani have revealed a prehistoric
acropolis, a settlement and a burial ground, and yielded
artefacts of the Early Cycladic period.
Ermoupolis is one of the most important towns of the Aegean Sea.
It is built in an amphitheatrical way with neoclassical mansions.
The Miaoulis Place, where the town hall was built under the plans
of the architect Ziller in 1876-1881, are worth mensioning.
The public theatre "Apollon" that is a micrograph of the fabled
Scalla of Milan, the church of the Christ's Transfiguration
(Metamorphosis), and the church of His Resurrection
(Anastasis) by the hill are quite important places to visit.
Finally, the Conjectural Cycladic Centre, the village of
Posedonia that was named after the second greatest town
of the island of Posedonia, which is also named Delagrazia
after the small church of Virgin Mary (Madonna Dela Grazia),
is another notable place of Syros.
Syros has been one of the Cycladic Civilization centres. It has been inhabited
since the Neolithic years and there are archaeological finds that date back to
the start of the Neolithic Age around 3000 BC. Homer reports that two cities
thrived in the whole island; Phoenice and Posidonia. The island developed
an important civilization in the 6th century BC. According to the ancient mythology
the protector of the island was the god Pan. During the Persian Wars Syros took
sides with the Persians, but later on became a member of the alliance of Athens
. Syros was conquered by the Macedonians during the Hellenistic period and then
became a part of the Roman empire in the 1st century, and thus prospered in
comparison to the other Cycladic islands, until the Byzantin period, the age of the
island's great downfall. In the 13th century the Venetians conquered it and built the
medieval town of Ano Syros. Before 1821 the seashore had been deserted and the
only place that was inhabited was Ano Syros. After the declaration of the
Greek Revolution the island came under trench protection and became a
safe shelter for many refugees from every place in Greece. Because of the
privileged position of the port, it soon became one of the most commercially
powerful towns of Greece.
Keros-Syros" is from around
2700 BC to 2300 BC.
If we turn from prehistoric to historical times,
we at once note the presence here of the Ionians too.
In the 6th century BC, Syros was a flourishing island.
After the Persian Wars, Syros was an ally of the Athenians.
Then it followed the rule of the Macedonians, the Romans
and the Byzantines. From 1207 the island passed through the hands
of many Venetian masters before finally falling to the Turks in 1537
. From that period the island followed the history of the other Cycladic islands
until its liberation. The Archaeological Museum of Syros, founded in 1835,
is one of the oldest in Greece. In 1899, the Municipality of Ermoupolis offered
some rooms of the Town Hall, a building designed by Ernst Ziller, for the
exhibition of antiquities, and since then, the museum has been
housed there. The museum includes the following collections:
Prehistoric finds from the fortified settlement at Kastri
and the cemetery at Chalandriani, dated to the
Early Bronze Age (3rd millennium B.C.).
Finds from the ancient city of Syros
and other sites of the Cyclades.