Pantheon, Rome

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  • Maurizioago's Profile Photo

    The Pantheon.

    by Maurizioago Updated Apr 13, 2015

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    This well preserved Roman (ex) temple was built by Augustus' son in law Marcus Vespasianus Agrippa in 27 B. C. Between 118 and 125 A. D. it was completely rebuilt by Hadrian. It was dedicated to all the gods. After other restorations it fell in a state of neglect until 608, when it was given by emperor Phocas to pope Boniface VIII who turned it into the church of Saint Mary and Marthyrs.

    The Pantheon is 43 meters both in diameter and in height. The only source of light inside this building is a hole on its dome.

    It is the resting place of several important Italians. Among them here are buried king Vittorio Emanuele II, queen Margherita and Raffaello (painter).

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  • Jefie's Profile Photo

    The mother of all Roman temples

    by Jefie Updated Nov 24, 2014

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    We visited the Pantheon on our second day in Rome so of course we were impressed, but we probably would have been just as impressed had it been our second to last day. The Pantheon as it stands now was rebuilt under Hadrian in 126 AD. The large (43-m-wide) circular building is topped by an unreinforced concrete dome, still the largest of its kind in the world still standing after nearly 2000 years. In the Middle Ages, the Pantheon was converted into a Catholic church, and since we were there on a Sunday we got to see mass being celebrated. It must be hard to pay attention to the celebration while a huge throng of tourists is gathering behind you near the entrance, but then again I'm guessing it must all be part of the experience of attending Sunday mass at the Pantheon. During the Renaissance, the Pantheon also became a tomb for notable Italians; only a few people have been buried at the Pantheon, the most famous one being the painter and sculptor Raphael. After mass was over, we got to walk around the Pantheon (admission is free). I think I was as equally impressed with the beautifully well-preserved marble interior of the building as I was with the size of the crowd (it was, after all, only my second day in Rome). One thing I thought was interesting was that the only light in the building came through the main doors and also through the oculus, an opening located at the very top of the dome. There was plenty of natural light when we were there, but I'd be curious to see what it looks like on an overcast day, or better yet, to see how wet and slippery it gets on a rainy day!

    Rome's one and only Pantheon Piazza della Rotunda, in front of the Pantheon The Pantheon's circular interior Tomb of King Umberto I at the Pantheon View of the Pantheon's front doors and oculus
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  • Where Chic started-the Pantheon

    by shellirice Written Nov 3, 2014

    The blending of the colors and hues of gold, cream, bronze, gray, black together with pillars of marble, statues, inscriptions-all illuminated the fifth day of our first visit to Rome. If you think you've seen old Rome up until now then just stand in the middle of the Pantheon with the beam of light from the dome and look around you. Take it slow walking inside. Examine the structure according to the info you read on line. The door, the sections, the flooring. After we walked around the inside and checked the contents from each direction we walked around the outside perimeters and stood at a distance in the front square. Amazing, stimulating and impressive. Enjoy.

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    Pantheon Near Piazza Navona

    by GracesTrips Updated Nov 2, 2014

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    I didn't find an official website for the Pantheon but did find some helpful information. Entrance is free to the public. The general hours are Monday-Saturday from 9am to 7:30pm and Sunday from 9am to 5:30pm. The Pantheon is a church so they do have services there. There is no metro nearby the Pantheon. You could take a bus but probably the best way is to walk. At least when you get there, you can relax at the Piazza Navona just west of the Pantheon (signs should be posted).

    Besides the architectural awe of a building built in 27 BC (oldest church in Rome), the Pantheon is also a mausoleum of the royal family and renaissance artists.

    Below is the link to a live webcam at the Pantheon!

    Front view of the Pantheon Inside the Pantheon The Dome in the Pantheon
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  • SELVA73's Profile Photo

    A thousand of things to do and see

    by SELVA73 Updated Jun 15, 2014

    The churches: Basilica Sta. Maria Sopra Minerva; Basilica di San Pedro; San Carlo alle 4 Fontane; San Paolo Fuori Mura; San Pietro In Vincoli; Santa Maria della Vitoria; Sta. Maria Maggiore; Sta. Maria in Cosmedin; Sta. Andrea all Quirinale; Sta.Cecilia in Trastevere
    The monuments: The Collosseum, Casteglio St. Angelo, The Forum; The Panteon;
    Others: la Bocca della Verità, The Sixtine Chapel, La Cripta dei Capuccini; il Colosso de Constantino;
    The places: Vaticano, Mercato de Campo dei Fiori;Piazza del Campidoglio; Piazza del Popolo; Piazza Navona; Piazza Spagna, Trastevere; Villa Giulia; Vittore emmanuelle monument
    The Museums: Vaticano Museum, Museo Palazzo Massimo Alle Terme; Musei Capitolini;
    The fountains: La fonte delle Tarterugghe; La fontana di Trevi,

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  • brendareed's Profile Photo

    Pantheon - tomb of Raphael

    by brendareed Updated Jun 2, 2014

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    On the left side of the Pantheon as you enter from the main entrance is the tomb of the great Renaissance artist Raphael. Most likely you have seen some of his works during your tour of the Vatican Museums – he only has four rooms dedicated to his works (“The Raphael Rooms”) and his most famous work, The School of Athens draws crowds to view it.

    Raphael died young – age 37 – after living a rather full and happy life as a celebrated court painter. Unlike his contemporary Michelangelo, Raphael did not hesitate to enjoy fine food, fine wine, and fine women; in fact, the Renaissance biographer Vasari claims that Raphael’s death was due to an excess of pleasure (I’ll let you figure out which pleasure). Raphael became ill but remained on this earth long enough to understand his plight, put his affairs in order, receive last rites, and dictate his will. One of the points in his will was that he requested to be buried in the Pantheon.

    So here he lies in this glorious building that inspired another Renaissance artist and architect to complete the cathedral in Florence. His funeral was large and grand – he was a popular person in Rome and his death was seen as a huge loss. The inscription on his marble sarcophagus reads: Here lies that famous Raphael by whom Nature feared to be conquered while he lived, and when he was dying, feared herself to die.

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    Pantheon - temple to all the gods

    by brendareed Written Jun 2, 2014

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    In Rome, the Pantheon, so great within and without, has overwhelmed me with admiration.
    Goethe, 1786

    The Pantheon began in 27 BC as a temple to all the gods, later to become a secular monument, closed by the Christian emperors because it was a temple to other gods, only to return to church status and consecrated as a Christian church in AD 609. Pillaged by the Goths, then the Byzantines, it was later pillaged by the Catholic church – Pope Urban VIII took the bronze ceiling and had it melted down and turned into the baldacchino that is over the high altar in St. Peter’s Basilica and cannons for the Castel Sant’Angelo. Future popes made attempts to restore and upgrade the Pantheon.

    The Pantheon is a perfectly proportioned building with the height and the diameter of the circular interior being the same measurement: 43.3 meters (142 feet). It is basically a sphere that sits inside a cylinder (think of it as a ball that perfectly fits into a can). At the top of the structure is a round opening to let in the natural light – the oculus – which also lets in the natural wet. On my visit to the Pantheon, I learned that the floor is sloped and there are drainage holes to allow the rain water to drain off the floor. It is a massive space once inside – there were many people there during my visit and yet it still seemed empty.

    The method of constructing the dome of the Pantheon was lost when the Roman Empire fell, leaving architects to ponder how to create a similar dome – consider the plight of the Florentines who lived with a dome-less cathedral for more than 100 years until Brunelleschi visited Rome, studied the Pantheon, and returned to build the now famous double shelled dome on the Florence Cathedral.

    The Pantheon’s interior is round with several recesses. It houses an altar and several tombs, including Vittorio Emanuele II, the first king of Italy, and the master painter Raphael, who requested to be buried in the Pantheon.
    On the outside of the Pantheon, the portico is home to 16 huge Corinthian columns. Above the entrance to the portico are the following words: "M. AGRIPPA.L.F.COSTERTIUM.FECIT” which mean “Marcus Agrippa son of Lucius, having been consul three times made it”. Agrippa didn’t really make the Pantheon but rather the earlier structure in that spot; Hadrian, when rebuilding the Pantheon after the earlier one burned down, had the inscription put on the building in honor of Marcus Agrippa.

    Horse-drawn carriages line up outside the Pantheon in hopes of picking up a tourist to take for a ride (for a fee). It is a crowded piazza – and typically where there are lots of tourists, there are scammers and pickpockets. So be careful as you enjoy the Pantheon.

    The Pantheon rents an audio guide for visitors; however, Hubby and I both downloaded the free Rick Steves’ audio guide from iTunes before we left, which gave us a good overview of the Pantheon starting with the outside and the moving into the interior. While not always a fan of Rick Steves, I do recommend his audio tours for the sights in Rome.

    Opening hours: Mon – Sat: 9 am - 6.30 pm and Sun: 9 am –1 pm.

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  • illumina's Profile Photo

    Pantheon

    by illumina Written May 29, 2014

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    The Pantheon was originally a temple to all the gods of ancient Rome, commissioned by Marcus Agrippa 27-25 B.C. after Augustus' victory over Cleopatra and Marcus Antonius at the Battle of Actium - as shown by the inscription M[arcus] Agrippa L[ucii] f[ilius] co[n] s[ul] tertium fecit," meaning "Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, made [this building] when consul for the third time." However, excavations have proved that this original building was completely destroyed except for the façade in a huge fire in 80AD, and was rebuilt twice, once by Emperor Domitian, and again after another fire in 110AD by Trajan and finished by Hadrian.

    It is still the largest dome ever vaulted in brick - just slightly larger than the Dome of St Peters. The building has been in continuous use since it's construction - in the 7th century it became a church dedicated to "St. Mary and the Martyrs" but commonly know as La Rotonda.

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  • solopes's Profile Photo

    Heavy. old and respectfull

    by solopes Updated May 20, 2014

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    I thought it could be a lie, but it isn't. Of course it’s old. Two thousand years…? With such architecture?

    Let me collect some details from internet:

    "The portico consists of three rows of eight columns, 14 m (46 feet) high of Egyptian granite with Corinthian capitals. They support an entablature facing the square, which bears the famous inscription in Latin, attributing the construction to Agrippa, although the extant temple was rebuilt later by Hadrian.

    The dome has a span of 43.2 m (142 feet), the largest dome until Brunelleschi's dome at the Florence Cathedral of 1420-36.

    The interior volume is a cylinder above which springs the half sphere of the dome. A whole sphere can be inscribed in the interior volume, with the diameter at the floor of the cylinder of 43.3 m (143 feet) equaling the interior height.

    Five rows of twenty-eight square coffers of diminishing size radiate from the central unglazed oculus with a diameter of 8.7 m (29 feet) at the top of the dome.

    The dome is constructed of stepped rings of solid concrete with less and less density as lighter aggregate (pumice) is used, diminishing in thickness to about 1.2 m (4 feet) at the edge of the oculus. The dome rests on a cylinder of masonry walls 6 m (20 feet). Hidden voids and the interior recesses hollow out this construction, so that it works less as a solid mass and more like three continuous arcades which correspond to the three tiers of relieving arches visible on the building exterior. Originally, these exterior walls were faced with colored marbles."
    http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Pantheon.html

    Watching such an harmonious building...would you believe?

    Rome- Pantheon Rome- Pantheon Rome- Pantheon Rome- Pantheon
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  • gordonilla's Profile Photo

    An ancient and impressive monument

    by gordonilla Written Mar 15, 2014

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    I have to say that after some time looking for the Pantheon (and just about when I was going to give up) I came upon it. It was quite unexpected and I have to say I found it to be impressive and well worth visiting.

    It may have looked old from the outside, but from within, you could feel the importance of the building and the honour placed upon it by Romans and visitors alike.

    Exterior (1) Exterior (2) Interior (1) Interior (2) Interior (3)

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  • goodfish's Profile Photo

    Hadrian's Masterpiece

    by goodfish Updated Feb 6, 2014

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    Don't miss this one! The Pantheon (pronounced PAN-tee-on) is one of Rome's most important treasures as it's the most well-preserved structure of its age in the city and possibly in the world. Designed by and constructed under Emperor Hadrian in the early 2nd century, it was originally a Roman temple dedicated to "pan theos"- all the gods - and until the 15th century the dome was the largest ever built. The diameter and height of this 142-foot dome are exactly the same, and a 27" oculus (round opening at the center of the dome) is the only source of interior light.

    The Pantheon was spared the building-over or tearing-down of other pre-Christian temples due to its conversion to a Christian church by Pope Boniface IV in AD 609. That still didn't save it from the plundering of bronze roof tiles by Constans II (who sent them to Constantinople) and bronze portico by Pope Urban VIII of the Barberini family. Some of material from the portico is said to have been melted down to make cannon for Castel Sant'Angelo, and rest used by Bernini for his magnificant baldacchino in St. Peter's. As the famous saying goes, "What the barbarians did not do, the Barberini did!"

    Still an active Catholic church dedicated to - here we go again - St. Mary, it's officially known as St. Mary and the Martyrs. It's also a tomb for Italian Kings Vittorio Emanuele II and Umberto I, painters Raphael and Annibale Carracci, composer Arcangelo Corelli, and architect Baldassare Peruzz.

    Visiting info:
    http://www.060608.it/en/cultura-e-svago/beni-culturali/beni-archeologici/pantheon.html

    Entrance is Free. As this is officially a place of worship, proper attire is highly recommended.

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  • WulfstanTraveller's Profile Photo

    Temple to All Gods

    by WulfstanTraveller Updated Nov 11, 2013

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    The Pantheon is truly one of the most stunning and technically impressive monuments in the world. The dome was unsurpassed, even unrivalled, for centuries and is made of cast concrete. The oculus in the centre of the roof provides essentially all the light. It is all the more impressive because it is still essentially intact even though it is almost 2,000 years old. In fact, the Augustan-era entrance, more than a century older than the Hadrianic rotunda, is about 2,000 years old.

    The building was originally built, as the words over the entrance state, under the authority of Marcus Agrippa, one of Augustus's right-hand men, in the late 1st Century BC/BCE. The rotunda portion that is now the main part of the structure, was built under Hadrian in the early 2nd century AD/CE. Conversion into a church under the "Byzantine"/(East) Roman Emperor Phocas, who gave it to the Church, in the early 7th century saved it from destruction and the entire structure is amazingly well preserved.

    The Pantheon, 1994 The Pantheon in 1994
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  • gwened's Profile Photo

    Pantheon

    by gwened Written Aug 26, 2013

    A wonderful building with free admission and loaded with visitors. The place is nice thus,and a must to see while in Rome.

    the place is nice but come early as we came back by the area in the afternoon and there were hordes of tourists there.

    a bit more history
    Erected at the initiative of Agrippa in 27 BC, the Pantheon was destroyed by fire in 80 A.D. and rebuilt then on the orders of the emperor Hadrian between 118 and 128 ad. This last work campaign saw the creation of the great dome coffered, amounting to 43 meters high and an oculus breakthrough.The building is a temple dedicated to all the gods of antiquity, March and Venus in particular, the protectors of the people Iulia. He became a Christian church dedicated to Sainte-Marie - aux-martyrs in 609. Its entrance porch has sixteen columns supporting a pediment in advance.The dome that symbolizes the celestial vault was not only the image of the place of residence of the gods but also of the universe under the control of Rome.
    With more than 18 centuries, its dome holds the world record of scope of the vaults. If the current Pantheon is particularly well preserved, its environment has suffered many transformations.Once at the bottom of a large courtyard, the Pantheon today is in direct contact with the street. In addition, if the temple previously dominated the site, it is now below because of the raising of the ground of Rome over the centuries. On the architectural perspective, the Pantheon does not follow the 'standards' of the temples. Firstly, its plan is circular, and on the other hand the colonnade that surrounds it is rectangular and not circular as is the case for the other temples of Rome to similar plan. In fact, the pantheon innovates by combining three different geometric shapes: rectangular structure, a porch with a triangular pediment, and a cylinder crowned by a cupola.

    Its an amazing building to see.

    Pantheon ceilings dome portico front porch square with obelisk and Pantheon
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  • clareabee's Profile Photo

    Amazing structure!

    by clareabee Written Feb 10, 2013

    this is the only complete structure that remains from Roman times and you wouldn't realise looking at it - it really has stood the test of time. The Pantheon, although still a funtioning place of worship doesn't really hold services these days - i don't really know how they could with all the tourists in the place, although as we went in February which is out of season the crowds were not too bad.
    The dome has an opening which lets in light, but also lets in the rain and elements. The floor of the Pantheon slopes towards the door in order to let the rainwater drain out. There is an also an area directly underneath which has drainage grills.
    You must have a look at the tomb of Raphael whilst there - you will see all the people gathered around it. There is also wonderful art and beautiful marble floors.
    Watch out for all the gladiators outside touting for business - basically you pay them to have your picture taken with them.

    dome of Pantheon Raphael's tomb
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  • IreneMcKay's Profile Photo

    The Pantheon

    by IreneMcKay Updated Jan 5, 2013

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    The pantheon went some way to restoring my faith in life and interest in Rome after a very disappointing visit to the Spanish Steps and Trevi Fountain. There were lots of people here, too, but the pantheon is big enough to cope with them. Apparently the original temple on this sight was rectangular. The circular structure we see today results from restoration carried out during the reign of the Emperor Hadrian between 118 and 125 AD.

    The building was apparently an amazing feat of engineering for its time and should not be able to even stand up at all. The pantheon is a temple to all gods. Inside under the statue of the Virgin Mary lies the grave of Raphael.

    There is a hole in the centre of the pantheon's dome. Outside the pantheon was my favourite Roman fountain. The faces carved into it were wonderfully detailed and humorous.

    The pantheon. Faces on the fountain. Faces on the fountain. The pantheon Square. The pantheon dome.
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