Careful when you grab a cab, especially at the airport. There will be people in the airport that try and talk you into taking their cabs, but they aren't real cabs. Take only cabs from the designated cab areas.
Taxis are normally not hailed in the Netherlands, but taken from a taxi rank, of which there are many (there is an environmental advantage to this: taxis aren't constantly driving round looking for custom). Taxis are good quality but relatively expensive; around €1.50 per km regardless of day or time. You don't need to tip more than rounding up: they are already expensive enough.
You're not supposed to hail a taxi in the street - though occasionally one may stop - as there are ranks dotted around the city. The best places to find taxis are outside Centraal Station, the bus station at the junction of Kinkerstraat and Marnixstraat, Rembrandtplein and Leidseplein. You can't book cabs in advance, but if you call Amsterdam's 24-hour central taxi control on 6777777, a taxi will arrive almost immediately (though be prepared to wait if it is raining on a Friday or Saturday evening as the line is often busy, but there's a telephone queueing system).
Wheelchairs will only fit in taxis if folded. If you're in a wheelchair, phone the car transport service for wheelchair users on +31 (0)20 6333943 (generally open 9am to 5pm, Monday to Friday). You'll need to book your journey one or two days in advance.
In addition to all the trams, they also have bike taxis. I mostly walked
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Taxi, metro, tram or the bike
some ways to go to or around Amsterdam.
During VT meeting 2001 I twisted my ancle in a bad way so i took a cab to the station