The city was first mentioned in the chronicles for the year 1213, but historians believe it could have been founded by Yury Dolgoruky more than half a century earlier.
So it is believed that Kostroma, like Moscow, was founded by Prince Yuri Dolgoruky in 1152. It celebrated its 850th anniversary in 2002.
Recently the appearance of the one of two main squares of Kostroma - Soviet square underwent some alterations and a new monument was added to the architectural ensemble — the one dedicated to the Duke Yury Dolgoruky.
The Trinity Cathedral is famous for its elaborately painted interior.
The murals painted on the walls are regarded as some of the most valuable art treasures in the country. A perfect match for these frescoes is the picturesque wooden Baroque iconostasis made by Kostroma masters, and comprising 80 icons arranged in several tiers.
With the Godunovs support a school for icon painters was set up in the monastery. Most renowned masters were Guri Nikitin and Sila Savin.
You can watch my 2 min 40 sec HD Video Kostroma Ipatiev Monastery Trinity Cathedral out of my Youtube channel with Russian Choral music.
By the end of XVII century there were 18 bells on the Belfry and the Bell Tower, largest of which in 600 pood (9600 kg) was the contribution of Stefanida - the mother of Tsar Boris Godunov and also of boyars A.Godunov and V.Streshnev.
In 2006 the new 500 pood (8000 kg) bell "Tsar Michael" was gifted by the prince of Kent Michael (who was a great- great-great-grandson of the Russian emperor Nikolay I) in memory of the 400 anniversary of election on the throne of the Russian tsar Michael Fedorovich Romanov.
This is the largest residential building of the monastery including the Sacred Gate with the church of Saints Chrysanthus and Daria (in the center of the construction), exchequer rooms and residential chambers (to the north and the south from the Sacred Gate).
In connection with accommodation of the Bishop in the territory of Ipatiev monastery in 1744, the building was considerably reconstructed and adapted under the residence of the Kostroma bishop.
The facade from the Kostroma river reflects constructions of the XVI-XIX centuries: from fortifications with loopholes up to architectural forms of classicism.
The main entrance from the riverside with the Church of Saints Chrysanthus and Daria was designed by the famous Russian architect Konstantin Thon.
Over the main gate in the central part of the west wall facing the Moscow road is the Green Tower deriving its name from the green tiling of its roof and erected in 1642-1645 to commemorate the coronation of Mikhail Romanov. It was through this gate that the procession of the newly-elected monarch passed on its way to the crowning ceremony in Moscow in 1613.
The northwest tower of the Old city was erected in 1586-1590 with the support of Dmitry and Boris Godunovs. It was used for storage of gunpowder.
As all towers of the Ipatiev monastery it had three levels of fight: the top level - for installation of guns, the middle level for firing from the manual fire and throwing weapon, and the bottom level with loopholes for bottom fight.
The main square of the city (Susaninskaya Ploshchad’) is named after Ivan Susanin, a peasant who became a hero after misleading Polish invaders into a swamp, where they all died.
The square has several buildings of note, clockwise around the northern side are: the Fire Watch Tower (still in use, and under UNESCO protection), the Guard-House (a former military jail – now a literature museum), the General S.Borshov’s House (the palace of an 1812 war hero, being a hotel for members of the royal family afterwards, now a courthouse) and the Town Hall.
Then you’ll see the main city street – Sovietskaya and the perfect ensemble of the Arcaded Central Market.
Locals call the square a frying pan, haha!
It’s quite clear why the Romanov tsars regarded Kostroma as their special protectorate. It was here that an embassy from Moscow offered to Mikhail Romanov the Russian crown in 1612.
On March 14, 1613, Zemsky Sobor announced that Mikhail Romanov, who had been in the Ipatiev Monastery at that time, would be the Russian tsar.
1913 was the year of the Romanovs Royal Family 300th anniversary and for the occasion of the Emperor's visit the Kostroma authorities made plans for renovating the park and, most importantly, decided to build a huge monument commemorating the event. According to the original intentions the basis of the monument and its whole structure had to be embellished with numerous figures of all the Czars and Queens of the dynasty.
Also, some important non-royal historical personalities had to be included in the composition.
But with the actual monument being erected, the additional sculptures were never to be installed because the 1917 revolution changed everything to the point of absurdity sometimes.
The collection of the Museum of Arts comprises fine pieces of painting of the XVIIIth-XIXth centuries. The Museum also has an interesting collection of the Russian art of the first years of the XXth century.
The foundation of the Museum in Kostroma took place in 1891 and was connected with the activities of the Kostroma Province Academic Archival Commission. Sometimes it's being called "the Romanov museum", or "former Romanov museum" because it actually was built for the 300th Anniversary of the Romanov Royal family.
In 1913 the Commission took its seat in the building of the Romanov Museum erected by the celebration time of the tercentenary of the House of Romanov. The new building was opened in the presence of the imperial family.
The crowning glory of the Ipatiev Monastery ensemble is the five-dome Cathedral of the Holy Trinity (Troitsky Sobor). The original stone cathedral was built in 1558-64 with the Godunovs` contributions. In the middle of the XVII century the cathedral was destroyed by a gun powder explosion. The new church was built in 1652.
The exterior of the Cathedral features some decorative and architectural details: the majestic main porch, blind arcading along the walls, brick decorations of the windows and decorative drums of the domes glittering with gold.
A smaller church was demolished by the Soviet authorities. There are plans to reconstruct it and consecrate it to the holy martyrs from the Romanov family.
The composition of the monument consists of two parts occurring at different times - the Belfry and the Bell Tower. The ancient (southern) part - the Belfry was erected in 1601-1604 with the support of Godunovs in style of a multiflying arcade.
The tall Bell Tower with a tent-shaped roof was attached to it from the northern side in 1645 - 1646. Its customer was boyar Alexey Godunov, one of the last representatives of this ancient family.
This church unfortunately is not kept. It is mentioned for the first time in 1564, as a small stone church. It was constructed with the support of boyars Godunovs.
The new stone spacious church was arranged in 1760-1764 on a place of the temple which had almost decayed.
In the middle of XIX century under the project of the architect K.A.Ton the new five-domed Temple of the Virgin in Byzantium-Russian style was constructed with the Chambers in the name of Vasily Veliky, Grigory Bogoslov and John Zlatoust from the southern side. The Temple had the connection with the Trinity Cathedral through the southern gallery.
In 1934 the Temple was completely destroyed. Now design works on restoration of the Temple are conducted.
The southeast tower of the Old city was erected in 1586-1590 with the support of Dmitry and Boris Godunovs. It was near to the bank of the Kostroma River. There is a legend about an underground passage from this tower aside the river which could be used by defenders of the monastery for updating stocks of water in case of siege.
The second famous Monastery in Kostroma is the Bogoyavlensky (Bogoyavlensko-Anastasjin, Epiphany) Monastery. It is located at ulitsa Simanovskogo 26.
The male Bogoyavlensky Monastery was founded in the XV century by Nikita who was a disciple and a relative by Sergy Radonezhsky.
In the XVII century the Monastic House and the Bell Tower were constructed.
Also in the XIX century the Chapel and additional facilities for Bogoyavlensky Cathedral were constructed.
After the Revolution the Monastery was abolished. The renaissance of the monastery as a female one began in 1990s years. In our days the passage to the monastery is prohibited.
The complex has been recently and brightly restored and is in full working order. Restoration continues on the surrounding monastery buildings.
You can watch my 2 min 25 sec HD Video Kostroma Bogoyavlensky (Epiphany) Monastery out of my Youtube channel with Russian Choral music.
In 2002 the bronze monument to the heavenly patron of Kostroma - Saint George (Georgy Pobedonosetz) was established at the wall of the Bogoyavlensky Cathedral. The author of the monument is Aleksey Blagovestnov.