Populo Square - Plaza del Pópulo
It's a beautiful square where there are some interesting buildings: Old butcher's, Notaries' offices and the Gate of Jaen and the Arch of Villalar. The Lions fountain is in the centre.
The monumental coat of arms of Charles V is quite remarkable at the Old butcher's building. The Notaries' offices dates from the beginning of the 16th century and it is in the Plateresque style and it has two floors. Finally, it's interesting the Lions fountain which was moved from the neighbouring Roman city of Castulo (Linares) at the beginning of the 16th century. The sculpture of the woman has traditionally been identified with Himilce, the Iberian princess from Castulo, who married the Carthaginian leader Hannibal.
Esta bonita plaza tiene algunos edificios interesantes: las Antiguas Carnicerías, las Escribanías, así como la Puerta de Jaén y el Arco de Villalar. La fuente de los Leones está en el centro. El monumental escudo de Carlos V destaca en las Antiguas Carnicerías. Las Escribanías proceden del siglo XVI y son de estilo plateresco, con dos plantas. Finalmente, es interesante la fuente de los Leones, que fué trasladada desde la vecina ciudad romana de Cástulo (Linares) al principio del siglo XVI. La escultura de la mujer ha sido tradicionalmente identificada con Himilce, la princesa ibérica procedente de Cástulo, que se casó con el lider cartaginés Anibal.
St Philip Neri Seminary - Seminario
Constructed between the 17th and 18th centuries, its style is Baroque . In the main door there are memorial tablets of a festive and critical nature. The interior is arranged around three courtyards. It was declared an Historical-national architectural monument in 1931. At present it is the headquarters of the International University Antonio Machado.
Seminario de San Felipe Neri
Construido entre los siglos XVII y XVIII, en estilo barroco. En la puerta principal hay diferentes cuarteles, de tipo festivo y de naturaleza. El interior está distribuido en tres patios. El edificio fue declarado Monumento Arquitectónico Histórico Nacional en 1931. Hoy en día es sede de la Universidad Internacional Antonio Machado.
Old University - Antigua universidad
In 1568 Fernandez of Cordoba created a new university here. The façade is mannerist, with a half point arch with an acanthus key and a medallion of the Holy Trinity. The place inside is organised around a courtyard with a double gallery. The university was removed in 1824. A plaque recalls the poet Antonio Machado who taught French grammar when the building was a seconday school.
En 1568, Fernández de Córdoba creó aquí una nueva universidad. La fachada es manierista, con un arco de medio punto con hojas de acanto y un medallón de la Santísima Trinidad. El edificio está organizado en torno a un patio con doble galería. La universidad se fué en 1824. Una placa recuerda que el poeta Antonio Machado enseñó gramática francesa aquí, cuando el edificio era un instituto.
Jabalquinto palace - Palacio de Jabalquinto
This palace dates from the 15th-17th centuries. The façade is in the Blazing Gothic style with Mudejar influences and it's very characteristic. The courtyard has a double row of arches with marble columns and coats of arms. It has monumental Baroque stairs covered by a half orange vault.
Este palacio data de los siglos XV y XVII. La fachada es de estilo gótico con influencias mudéjares, la cual es muy característica. El patiotiene doble planta de arcos con columnas de marmol y escudos. Tiene escaleras monumentales barrocas cuviertas con una bóveda de media naranja.
Cathedral - Catedral
The cathedral was built over an old mosque that Alfonso 8th dedicated to Christian worship of San Isidoro. The layout is similar to a basilica and it all dates from the 16th century. It has three chambers are divided by cruciform pillars, a 17th century sacristy and a Gothic cloister.
There is a fountain in front of the cathedral, the Saint Mary fountain. It was built to commemorate the first time water supplie arrived in town.
La catedral se construyó sobre una antigua mezquita y el Rey Alfonso VIII la dedicó a la veneración de San Isidoro. La planta es similar al de una basílica y toda ella data del siglo XVI. Tiene tres naves divididas por pilares cruciformes, una sacristía del siglo XVII y un claustro gótico.
Hay una fuente enfrente de la catedral, la fuente de Santa María. Fue construida para conmemorar la primera vez que llegó el suministro de agua a la ciudad.
Holy Cross church - Iglesia de Santa Cruz
It's a late Romanesque church, from the 8th century. It has a semicircular apse with a quarter sphere and a half cannon frontside. It's one of the oldest church in sothern Spain.
Es una iglesia de estido románico tardío, del siglo VIII. Tiene un ábside semicircular, con un cuarto de esfera y una parte delantera en forma de medio cañón. Es una de las igelsias mas antiguas del sur de España.
Town hall - Ayuntamiento
It has one of the most notable Andalusian Plateresque façades from the 16th century. It was constructed as a jail and as a courthouse. Its main door is flanked by caryatides of Justice and Charity. The upper floor has four muslim style balconies. There we can see the coats of arms of the King Philip II, Baeza and the judge. The decorated cornice that crowns it is quite remarkable. It's the town hall since 1867.
Tiene una de las mejores fachadas platerescas del siglo XVI andaluz. El edificio se construyó como prisión y palacio de justicia. Su puerta principal está flanqueada por cariátides que representan la justicia y la caridad. La planta alta tiene cuatro balcones de estilo mudejar. Podemos ver aquí los escudos del Rey Felipe II, Baeza y la justicia. La decorada cornisa que decora el edificio es muy interesante también. El ayuntamiento está aquí desde 1867.
Saint Francis ruins - San Francisco
The Convent of Saint Francis was constructed in the 16th century. Its most important element is the funeral chapel of the Benavides family. At the beginning of the 19th century a earthquake ruined the dome of the great chapel, remaining just the stone altarpiece with subjects of the Adoration of the Kings and the Shepherds, attributed to Esteban Jamete.
El Convento de San Francisco fue construído en el siglo XVI. Su parte más importante es la capilla funeraria de la familia Benavides. Al principio del siglo XIX un terremoto destruyó la cúpula de la capilla principal, quedando sólo el retablo de piedra, con motivos de la Adoración de los Reyes y los Pastores, atribuido a Esteban Janete.
This elegant fountain - known as the Fountain of Santa Maria - is the symbol of the city. It dates from 1564 and features the city's Coat of Arms. Behind is the former Seminar -(school)- of San Felipe Neri which was built in the 17th century.
On the other side of Plaza de Santa Maria lies Baeza's Cathedral of Santa Iglesia. The cathedral we see today is mostly 16th century and is the work of the architect Andres de Vandelvira. This replaced a 13th Century Gothic church, of which the chancel and portal survive. The cathedral was built on the site of the main Mosque of Moorish Bayyassa, which itself is thought to have been on the site of a pagan temple.There is only a photo of the tower unfortunately-still it gives us an excuse to go back there one day !
Inside the Cathedral
We arrived inside the cathedral to find this rather unusual view of the great central chandelier sitting on the floor being cleaned. It is easy to forget the work and care that these old buildings require.
Another photo shows the High Altar, beyond the chandelier, a glowing masterpiece of gold and extravagant Baroque decoration, so beloved by the creators of these great Christian cathedrals.
- Historical Travel
Jabalquinto Palace - or Fortress ?
This magnificent palace was commissioned in the late 15th century by Juan Alonso de Benavides Manrique – one of the great noble families of Baeza.
It was in 1477 – about the same period – that Queen Isabella of Castille ordered that the old Moorish fortress, or Alcazar, in Baeza be demolished. There was trouble in Baeza due to the in-fighting between the rival Benavides and Carvajal families and Queen Isabella wanted to be certain that “no fortress should remain against the city”.
So the building of the Jabalquinto Palace with its towering façade decorated with coats of arms and stone studs may have its own message. Was it a palace or was it a fortress ? It was certainly a statement of power and prestige by a powerful noble family.
It is a similar story in nearby Ubeda, the Alcazar in the city was demolished at the same time so that no warring noble family could gain control of the fortress, and thus probably the city.
Courtyard - Jabalquinto Palace
The interior of the palace contains a beautiful courtyard with a central fountain and orange trees.
On one side there is a magnificent Baroque staircase which was for use by the family and would have led to the grand rooms on the first floor. (The servants would have used the back stairs !).
The golden age of both Baeza and Ubeda was in the 16th century. Noblemen from both cities held important posts at the Imperial Court of Charles 1st. The in-fighting for control of the cities was brought to an end – the great families could fulfil their ambitions at Court where “the glittering prizes” of power and influence would be far greater.
Peace brought with it a golden age of economic prosperity and the foundation of Baeza University in 1538, which will be featured in a later tip, brought educational opportunity. Finally, the noble families often decorated their palaces in the latest architectural styles of the time – thus leaving a handsome legacy for us to admire.
La Antigua Carnicería
The old slaughter house was built in the XVI century within the city walls, and was moved to the Lions square or Plaza del Populo, its present location. There is a magnificent coat of arms of Carlos V in the upper gallery.
It has been used as municipal slaughter house until late in the20th century.
Ayuntamiento – Town Hall
The Town Hall was built in the XVI century. It is considered one of most valuable samples of the Plateresque style in Andalucía. The façade supports the coats of arms of Baeza, Felipe II amd the Corregidor (The mayor appointed by the King). It was used as a Prison and Lawcourts.
Today it is being restored, so we couldn’t see the Renaissance polychrome coffered ceiling in the session’s hall.
In front of the Town Hall you can see the house where the poet Antonio Machado lived.
Arco de Villalar and Puerta de Jaén
The arch of Villalar, on the left, linked to the Casa del Pópulo, was built in 1521 to commemorate the battle of Villlalar, in which Carlos V defeated the uprising of the Comuneros of Castile. It was never used as a gate.
On the right, the Jaén gate, an entry to the walled city.