By train, Cadiz
If you are over 60 years old [ young? ] you can buy a Tarjeta Dorada ticket for 5-15 euro at rail station ticket offices in Spain. It has your passport number on it and is the size of a bank credit card. So when buy a rail ticket in Spain just show your Tarjeta Dorada card and you will recieve at least 25% reduction depending on the day of the week. It is valid for a year.
Cadiz is at the end of the rail lines from Madrid, this journey takes about 3 hours and 20 minutes , by high speed train the AVE. A fast and comfortable trip. On board Bar, music channels by earphones provided and video films. Cadiz trains also go to Seville and Cordoba. There are also buses to Cadiz.
Dogs can be taken on the local train line 'Cercanias' without paying an extra charge. They do not have to go in a carrier either, they do however have to wear a muzzle and be on the lead. There is no weight limit.
To take a dog on the Andalucia Express and medium distance trains dogs must be put in a pet carrier. Cats too of course.
Dogs over 6kg are not allowed to travel the AVE or TALGO (fast trains). If you have a dog under 6kg it must travel in a pet carrier. Cats can be taken in a carrier too.
If you have a dog over 6kg it is a real hassle to travel with, especially if you want to go to Madrid or Barcelona.
You cannot take dogs on any form of bus either.
When you travel with a dog in the car officially you must have a net separating you from them. Them in the back and you in the front. Or they must travel in the car in a carrier. If you don not comply with these regulations be prepared to get a fine if the Guardia Civil stop you. Though it is unlikely that they will stop you unless you are breaking the speed limit or have another problem with your car.
Taxi's will only accept small dogs SOMETIMES.
As there is only on road into Cadiz which gets packed, it is best to use the trains if you are travelling to Cadiz city or from Playa Victoria. The trainline now doubles as a metro system taking you from one end to ther other! Itis also linked on the Cercanias line (local line) to San Fernando, Puerto Real, El Puerto de Sta Maria and Jerez. So you can travel from Cadiz to Jerez on this 'metro' line.
RENFE trains, at least in 1992 and in 1994, when I took them extensively, were incredibly well-run! They left and arrived on time, and were pleasant and quiet. And, my travel companion and I were free to snooze or look at the scenery, rather than worrying about the (seemingly) crazy drivers!
There is a brand new station for trains at the very center of the old town, by the harbour. It has been built near the old one, after taking the old rail ways under the surface along the modern part of the town.
But it's so new that it has only got 1 cafeteria, so be sure to buy everything you need in the city before taking the train!!
As you arrive by train to Cadiz, you will exit the station and you are in a square with a fountain in front of the harbour. For the city centre follow the harbour fence till you find a big square with the Town Hall. Before entering the square you will find a Tourist Info at your right.
The train station is just off the Plaza de Sevilla with up to 20 cercanias run daily to and from El Puerto de Sant Maria and Jerez de la Frontera and up to 12 regional lines to and from Seville. There are four trains daily to and from Cordoba and two each for Madrid and Barcelona.
If you wanna visit the province, the train is not the best way, as there is only one line between Cadiz and Sevilla, but not to the "white villages" nor to the coast.
It costs about $13 to get to Cadiz from Sevilla on a round trip ticket (just ask for "un billete, ida y vuelta") plus I paid a $.90 charge to issue the return trip. The train station drops you off right in the heart of the city so it's a great, affordable way to get here. From Sevilla, it's about an hour to Jerez de la Frontera (where you can tour a sherry bodega- the world's best sherry) and another 45 minutes to Cadiz. The trains are reliable and comfortable.