explore Liberty Square – the central square in the city and one of the largest ones in Europe. You will see “Kharkiv” hotel, lots of stores, cafes, etc.
Fondest memory: Walking in Shevchenko Park in downtown Kharkiv and visiting the zoo and the Botanical Garden.
Favorite thing: Slobodsko-Ukrainian province was reformed in Kharkov's province in 1835. By the middle of the 19th century Kharkov transformed into a big industrial, scientific and cultural center. There were a lot of small trade shops all over the city and some large metallurgy factories. Most of the main roads - from Moscow, Kiev and Petersburg to the Crimea ran through Kharkov, which greatly influenced the developing of the city.
Bell-tower of the Uspenski Cathedral, built in memories of the victory in the 1812 war.
There is a legend that the first church was built on this place in the 16th century. Cathedral we see today was built in 1770th.
Favorite thing: A botanical gardens of Kharkov's university was been founded in 1810. Two years later the Institute for the Noble Girls was opened thanks to G.F.Kvitka-Osnov'yanenko. The first Kharkov's newspaper 'Weekly' issued. A few yeas later he issued the first Ukrainian journal of the humor and satire 'Kharkov's Democrat'. University garden was created in 1820 (now it is the Shevchenko Park).
Favorite thing: A great event in cultural and scientific life of Kharkov happened on January 17, 1805, when the Kharkov University was open. It was the first university in Ukraine. Famous scientist V.N.Karazin opened it. There were four departments in the university: 1)Literature; 2)Moral and politic; 3)Physics and Mathematics; 4)Medicine. A famous Ukrainian writer P.P.Gulak-Artemovsky was a rector here in the first part of 19th century. Many famous people were working and studying here like the biologist I.I.Mechnikov, the composer N.V.Lysenko, and the writer M.P.Starizsky, the physicist and chemist N.N.Beketov, the historian D.I.Bagaliy. The same year (1805) new publishing factory was established printing many magazines, journals and newspapers.
Russian tsar Peter the Great visited Kharkov in 1709. He looked around Kharkov's fortress. Slavonic-Greek-Latin school was relocated to Kharkov from Belgorod in 1726. It was transformed in Kharkov's Collegium in 1727. The Collegium became a center of the education in the Eastern Ukraine. Famous Ukrainian poet, philosopher and humanist G. S. Skovoroda taught here. The next step was the opening of the first library in 1761.The nine brick factories, four brewery factories worked in Kharkov in this time.
The public specialized school for the nobleman's children was opened in Kharkov's Collegium in 1768. Such subject as mathematics, geometry, drawing, artillery, French and German were taught. Several years later the first printing-house was opened in the city. Kharkov became a center of Slobodski-Ukrainian province in 1796 and the first theatre worked in the town
Favorite thing: This Florence Renaissance style building on the Sumskaya st. was built in 1897 (picture circa 1905) by architect R. Golenishev. The State Bank District Office occupies its premises last 75 years or so. I used to work here, in the IS department…
Favorite thing: Russian tsar Alexei Mikhailovich issued an edict about Kharkov in 1656. The suburbs Zalopanski, Goncharovski, Panasovka and others appeared round the fortress in 1665 - 1680. Handicrafts as pottery, leather processing, shoemaking, the work of blacksmiths were developed in this suburbs. The Pokrovski cathedral was built in the town in 1689. It is the oldest stone building in Kharkov. The cathedral has been built in the Ukrainian style and was used like watchtower too. Picture circa 1906.
Favorite thing: What is the origin of the city's name? There is a legend about it. Long ago, there was a farmstead of a rich peasant in this place. His name was Khariton, but people called him Kharko, and the place where he lived was called Kharkov's farmstead. After that the whole place was named 'Kharkov'. But, most probably, the city received its name after the river, which is flowing through Kharkov. Its name is Kharkov, too. The other river, which is flowing through Kharkov, is the Lopan'. A settlement was organized in the place where both rivers meet. The first settlers were Ukrainian peasants and Cossacks. This place was well protected. From three sides there were swampy banks and from the fourth side a vast forest surrounded it. Kharkov's fortress for defense against the Tartars was built in 1656 – 1659. A double oak wall 1 km. long, with ten towers, a deep moat and rampart surrounded the city. Two subway passages to the rivers Kharkov and Lopan', were made from the center of the fortress. The armament of the fortress consisted of 12 guns, 402 cannon balls and 8 barrels with powder.
Favorite thing: Kharkov State University of Radioelectrnics situated on the Lenina Ave. I graduated from the University with Master Degree in Computer Science many years ago. It's been a long way from its steps to North America...
A local TV station began to work in 1955. Kharkov's planetarium was opened in 1957 and one-millionth townsman was born in 1962.
The Kharkov's circus was built in 1974. It has 2300 seats. There were 21 higher educational institutions with 127.000 students in the city in 1976. There were 193 schools with 167.000 children; 6 theatre, 3 publishing-houses, 21 movie theatres, 900 libraries, 3 museums, and 65 hospitals. There were 31 tram, 32 trolleys, and 52 bus lines. The population of Kharkov was about 1.5 million people.
46 research institutes worked in Kharkov in 1940. There were 36 higher educational institutions with 42.000 students. There were 14 theatres, 304 libraries. The German-Soviet war began June 22, 1941. On October 20th German Nazis captured the city. In 1942-1943 German Nazis captured the city twice and the Soviet army twice.
Finally, August 23rd the city was liberated from the Germans by the Soviet army. The 70% of the city was destroyed, more that 50.000 townspeople were killed or died from hunger.
Stalin and his subordinates organized a famine in Ukraine in 1932 -1933. They wanted to kill the reach peasants and to drive other in the Kolkhozs (Communist collective farms). In those years nearly 5 millions people died. Many peasants went to Kharkov in order to save themselves, but a majority of them died from starvation.
Many innocent citizens - cultural people, engineers, simple were arrested in 1937 - 1938. Some of them were shot; other died in the concentration camps in the Siberia…Few returned home in 10-20 years.
Favorite thing: In 1917 a civil war began in the former Russian Empire after the October's upheaval. The city was captured by the Red army (The Russian communist), White army (The Russian monarchists) and Directory army (The Ukrainian national army, which fought for the independence of Ukraine). The Russian communists won this war. Kharkov became a capital of the Soviet Ukraine (1919 – 1934). 'Gosprom' (State Industry) building - the Kharkov’s landmark. It was built in 20-th for the Ukrainian government. Now the great number of offices locates there.
The first gas lighting appeared on the central streets and squares of the city in 1871.
Next year the opera house was opened. By the end of the 19th century Kharkov was a big industrial and trade center with many factories and plants and a net of railway communications. In 1896 a water pipe began to function and one year later the first power station was built.