Bradshaw's were a comprehensive series of railway timetables & travel guides, published by W.J.Adams, of London...
The sixpence timetables became so popular, that common-speak for a rail-timetable, became; "A Bradshaw"...
George Bradshaw was born in Pendleton, Lancashire, on 29th July 1801
RAF slang from between the World Wars - "to Bradshaw", was a reference to pilots with poor navigational abilities, (probably because they flew too low, in order to follow railway lines...)
The first guide appeared in 19th 0ctober 1839 - Bradshaw's Railway Time Tables & Assistant To Railway Travelling, for the first time in British history, compiling all the national rail timetables in a single, comprehensive, cloth-bound book, costing a sixpence...
The guide preceded the introduction in UK of Standardised Railway Time, which did not occur until November 1840
In December 1841, heeding advice from his publisher William Jones Adams, Bradshaw's became a monthly published guide, then diversified to include all the British Isles, then Europe, (France. Italy, Germany & Austria), Turkey, Syria, & India...
Although the private railway companies resisted Bradshaw's vision of a unified national rail timetable, he became a shareholder of the rail companies & used his influence at their AGM's...
A peculiarity of the guides is that the traditional names of the months is not used because as a Quaker, Bradshaw disapproved oif the Roman pagan names, so months are listed ordinally...
Although Bradshaw died from contracting cholera while touring in Norway, his guides continued to be published under his name, until 1961
Bradshaw was buried in the cemetery ajoining 0slo cathedral, following his death on 6th September 1853
Bradshaw's foresight as to the needs of rail travellers, meant that the guides bearing his name would remain relevant for more than a century after his premature death...
The timetables that bore his name only became unnecessary to travellers when the 100+ private rail companies merged into the so-called "Big4", then were nationalised in 1948
Nationalisation brought about the unified British rail-timetable that had been Bradshaw's original vision, & by then, the major rail-operators were publishing their own timetables, based upon his design...
Former MP Michael Portillo, presented a BBC2 rail travel series entitled; Great British Railway Journeys, which run to 5 series, based upon journeys in Bradshaw's Descriptive Railway hand-Book 0f Great Britain & Ireland (1863)
The television series raised awareness of the forgotten achievements of George Bradshaw, & inspired a further series - Great Continental Railway Journeys - based upon the Bradshaw's guide published in 1913
London Heathrow International Airport
London Heathrow International Airport (LHR), 15 miles (24 kilometers) west of London, handles most of the intercontinental and international flights into the city. In fact, Heathrow serves more international flights and airlines than any airport in the world.
Airlines serving London Heathrow International Airport: Aegean Airlines, Aer Lingus, Aeroflot-Russian Airlines, Air Algerie, Air Astana, Air Canada, Air China, Air France, Air-India, Air Malta, Air Mauritius, Air New Zealand, Air Seychelles, Alitalia, All Nippon Airways, American Airlines, Arik Air, Asiana Airlines, Austrian Airlines, Avianca, Azerbaijan Airlines, Biman Bangladesh Airlines, Blue1, bmi British Midland, British Airways, Bulgaria Air, Cathay Pacific Airways, China Airlines, China Eastern Airlines, Croatia Airlines, CSA Czech Airlines, Delta Air Lines, Egyptair, El Al Israel Airlines, Emirates, Ethiopian Airlines, Etihad Airways, EVA Air, Finnair, Gulf Air, Iberia, Icelandair, Iran Air, Japan Airlines, JAT Yugoslav Airlines, Jet Airways, Kenya Airways, Kingfisher Airlines, KLM Royal Dutch Airlines, Korean Air, Kuwait Airways, Libyan Airlines, LOT Polish Airlines, Lufthansa German Airlines, Malaysia Airlines, Middle East Airlines, Olympic Airways, Oman Air, Pakistan International Airlines, Philippine Airlines, QANTAS Airways, Qatar Airways, Rossiya Russian Airlines, Royal Air Maroc, Royal Brunei Airlines, Royal Jordanian Airlines, SAS-Scandinavian Airlines, Saudia Airlines, Singapore Airlines, SN Brussels Airlines, South African Airways, SriLankan Airlines, Swiss International Air Lines, Syrian Arab Airlines, TAM Brazilian Airlines, TAP Air Portugal, Tarom Romanian Air Transport, Thai Airways International, Tunisair, Turkish Airlines, Turkmenistan Airline, United Airlines, US Airways, Uzbekistan Airways, Vietnam Airlines, Virgin Atlantic Airways, Vueling Airlines, and Yemenia Yemen Airways.
London Gatwick International Airport
Located about 28 miles (45 kilometers) south of central London, London Gatwick International Airport (LGW) is the second-largest airport in the United Kingdom, and is among the top ten of the busiest international airports in the world. Most airlines serving the airport are from the United Kingdom and European countries, although there are flights from Africa, the Middle East, and North America as well. The airport is also a major hub for many of the no-frills airlines that have proliferated in recent years.
Airlines serving London Gatwick International Airport: Adria Airways, Aegean Airlines, Aer Lingus, African Alliance International, Afriqiyah Airways, Air Algerie, Air Arabia Maroc, Air Europa, Air Malta, Air Moldova, Air Nostrum, Air Seychelles, Air Southwest, Air Zimbabwe, airBaltic, Aurigny Air Services, Belavia Belarusian Airlines, British Airways, Bulgaria Air, Caribbean Airlines, Cimber Sterling, Croatia Airlines, Cubana Airlines, Delta Air Lines, easyJet, Emirates, Estonian Air, flynas, Gambia Bird Airlines, Garuda Indonesia, Germania, Ghana International Airlines, Hellenic Imperial Airways, Iberia Express, Iraqi Airways, Jet2, Kam Air, Malev Hungarian Airlines, MeridianaFly, Montenegro Airlines, Norwegian Air, Onur Air, Pegasus Airlines, Qatar Airways, Royal Air Maroc, Ryanair, SAS-Scandinavian Airlines, SATA International, Swiss International Air Lines, TAP Air Portugal, Transavia, Tunisair, Ukraine International Airlines, United Airways of Bangladesh, US Airways, Vietnam Airlines, Virgin Atlantic Airways, and Wind Jet.
Taxi in Edinburgh
It is quite common to see advertisements on the body of buses in large cities in Europe or anywhere else in the world. But it is very uncommon to see advertisements on the body of taxi on the streets. There are many of them on the streets in the city of Edinburgh. The same taxi as depicted on our above photographs has advertisement that is promoting the royal collection at the Palace of Holyroodhouse with the following website ;- www.royalcollection.org.uk.
Taxi of course is a luxurious means of public transportation although it is more comfortable and more expensive to travel by taxis. Many of the taxis on the streets of Edinburgh are wheelchair accessible. For more information about taxi fares in Edinburgh you may visit the below website.Related to:
- Road Trip
- Family Travel
Free walking tour in Edinburgh
Many of the major tourist attractions are within walking distance in the city of Edinburgh. So it is not very difficult to take walking tours in the city. There are at least one free walking tours in the city of Edinburgh and all you have to pay is a voluntary tip at the end of the tour. One of these free walking tours is organised by newedinburghtours.com. This free walking tour was actually recommended by a VT member named jonathanbarker but we did not take this walking tour as we purchased 48 hours Royal Edinburgh tickets which give you free hop-on-hop-off bus services.
The walking tour covers many popular tourist attractions such as Edinburgh Castle (not inside), Royal Mile, Scott Monument, National Museum, Princes Street Gardens, Grassmarket and St. Giles Cathedral. Two walking tours are available daily, i.e. at 11,00 a.m. and at 2.00 p.m. Each tour lasts approximately 2½ hours. We understand that you will end up in a traditional Scottish pub where you can try haggis and Scottish beer. They also organise free walking tours in 17 other cities especially New York and Paris and even Tel Aviv according to their website. For further information about this free waling tour you may visit their website below.Related to:
- Family Travel
- Road Trip
Waverley Railway Station in Edinburgh
The Waverley Railway Station (aka The Waverley by the locals) is the main railway station in the city of Edinburgh. It is located on the eastern end of the popular Princes Street. The city of Edinburgh actually has two railway stations and the other is just several kilometers west of The Waverley named Haymarket Railway Station. Waverley Railway Station is the second largest main line railway station in the United Kingdom after London Waterloo. It covers a total area of approximately 25 acres. Nevertheless it is the second busiest railway station in Scotland after the Glasgow Railway Station. Almost 20 million passengers use The Waverley every year.
Waverley Railway Station has altogether 18 platforms and the station is managed by Network Rail which also manages 18 other railway stations in the United Kingdom. Waverley Railway Station has history that dates back to the middle of the 19th century and was expanded in the late 19th century. Visitors can travel to the city of London and other major cities in the United Kingdom from The Waverley. Opening hours to the Waverley Railway Station are between 4.00 a.m. and 12.45 a.m. daily.Related to:
- Family Travel
Royal Edinburgh Tickets
We believed that we saved quite a lot of money from purchasing Royal Edinburgh Tickets in Edinburgh. We purchased 48 hours Royal Edinburgh Tickets for several seniors and adults. You can also book your Royal Edinburgh Tickets online if you wish. These tickets allowed you to enter the following major tourist attractions in Edinburgh free of charge, i.e. the Edinburgh Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse and the Royal Yacht Britannia.
You will also have free unlimited travel by four different hop-on-hop-off tour buses, i.e. City Sightseeing, Edinburgh Tour, Max Tours and Majestic Tour. We have calculated that admission fees to these three top attractions in Edinburgh cost a total of approximately £42.00 per adult and each hop-on-hop-off bus tour costs £12.00 per adult. So you defintely save quite some money if you were to purchase these tours separately.
Hop-on-hop-off bus tours begin at approximately 9.00 a.m. and ends at approximately 6.00 p.m. daily during the summer months. A 48 hour Royal Edinburgh Ticket costs £48.00 per adult, £42.00 for senior (60 years old and above) and student and £26.00 per child.Related to:
- Road Trip
- Family Travel
Edinburgh International Airport
Edinburgh International Airport is situated at Ingliston, just ten kilometers west of the city center of Edinburgh. It is the busiest airport in Scotland and the fifth busiest airport in the United Kingdom. The airport officially opened to the public in 1977. It has only one terminal building with two runways. It serves almost ten millions passengers per year. As in other international airports, there are lots of restaurants, bar, cafes and duty free shops in the terminal building.
To get to the city of Edinburgh from the airport, visitors have several altenatives of public transportation, i.e. by taxi which costs between £20.00 and £25.00 per taxi, by bus or coach Airlink 100 which costs £4.00 per adult or £7.00 for a return ticket or by the new tram line which costs £5.00 per adult or £8.00 for return ticket.Related to:
- Family Travel
Tram in Edinburgh
Tram in the city of Edinburgh is a new means of public transportation. Construction of tram lines started only in 2008 and were full completed only in the first half of this year. The tram service started operations only at the end of May this year. So we were very fortunate to travel by trams from Edinburgh International Airport to the city of Edinburgh.
At present the tram network in Edinburgh has only one line with just 15 stations. You can see all the stations at their below website. It covers a total length of only 14 kilometers. It takes approximately 35 minutes to travel from the airport to the last stop at York Place and its frequency is approximately every 10 minutes during peak hours. The tram's top speed is approximately 70 kilometers per hour. The trams in Edinburgh are owned by Transport for Edinburgh. They are new and very modern and sophisticated it has to be said.
Ticket price from Edinburgh International Airport to the last stop at York Place is £5.00 per adult or £8.00 for return ticket. You may purchase your tram tickets at the ticketing machines before boarding the trams. Make sure you have exact change to purchase your tickets as the machines do not give back any change. You are not required to validate your tickets before boarding the trams. There are conductors onboard the trams to validate your tickets. The return ticket is open so you may travel any day back to the airport.Related to:
- Family Travel
UK - Train Companies
Railroad service always has been executed by private enterprises.
There have been many changes since the first steam locomotive rode its tracks.
These are the current passengers train companies with a concession:
-Arriva Trains Wales (In Wales:Trenau Arriva Cymru)
-c2c Rail Ltd
-London Midland (voormalig: Central Trains en Silverlink)
-East Midlands Trains (Former Midland Mainline)
-First Capital Connect
-First Great Western
-National Express East Anglia (Former One Railway)
-National Express East Coast (Former Great North Eastern Railway (GNER))
-South West Trains (Former South West Trains en Island Lines)
-Virgin Trains Cross Country
-Virgin Trains West Coast
These are the current passengers train companies without a concession:
-Grand Central Trains
-Heathrow Express (British Airports Authority responsibility)
-Translink (Northern-Ireland)Related to:
- Business Travel
- Budget Travel
NATIONAL EXPRESS are the coach operator with a monopoly on all UK mainline routes...
They are a privatised company, based in Birmingham, formed from what was the NATIONAL BUS COMPANY, in 1972 - 20 years later they became NATIONAL EXPRESS p.l.c.
They are such an institution of UK travel, that the band DIVINE COMEDY had their biggest hit with a song about travelling with them, of course called; National Express;
"There's a jolly hostess selling crisps & tea,
She'll provide you with drinks & theatrical winks,
For a sky high fee!"
Hostesses have become a feature of the past on the modern NATIONAL EXPRESS...
In fact they do not really have a competitor, except MEGABUS, whose tickets are only bookable online, & when I attempted to achieve this, the website was so unresponsive, I just gave up!
Coach travel is supposedly the 'budget travel' option, but when there is no competition, there is no incentive to offer competitive fares...
A classic example of this has been the effect of offering NATIONAL EXPRESS rail franchises, such as has happened on the Clacton-0n-Sea > London main line...
Since NATIONAL EXPRESS EAST ANGLIA have been responsible for running the trains on this line, their 484 coach service from Clacton-0n-Sea > London VCS has been reduced from 3 daily services, to just the 1, while prices instantly doubled to make it the same cost as travelling by rail...
For this reason I am not a great fan of the NATIONAL EXPRESS monopoly, which represents all that is wrong with public transport in UK!
Another issue that concerns me, is that although they are the official UK agent for EUROLINES, they do not operate any of the coaches, so if you have a complaint with the service you receive, as I did after the worst journey of my life, with them from Prague > London, NATIONAL EXPRESS, ARE NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR COMPENSATION...
For this reason, UK passport holders are treated as second-class travellers on EUROLINES services, & given the worst seats, or just no seat at all...
However, my main annoyance with NATIONAL EXPRESS is the 'analogue attitude' of some of their staff...
Even though it has been more than a decade since the introduction of online ticket sales, some drivers response to the presentation of an online reservation code, is;
"0h, you ain't got a ticket, then!"
This really provokes me, because in the digital era, nobody needs tickets - the online reservation code is unique to every ticket sale, so only the passenger who can produce this number/letter combination to the driver's request, is due to travel...
Every driver is issued with an A4 sheet of these numbers, to check with that provided from a passenger, together with location of which stop that passenger will be waiting at, so this business of;
"You need a proper ticket!"
...is just being awkward for the sake of being an anachronistic-operative...
What is worse, is that once I bought a 1-way ticket from the sales counter at VCS, only for the driver to say he did not recognise it as NATIONAL EXPRESS - yet "NATIONAL EXPRESS" was clearly printed at the top of it - I despair!Related to:
- Road Trip
- Budget Travel
In 1990 I took the ferry (P &...
In 1990 I took the ferry (P & O) and touring car, in 2001 I went by train (as a passenger without a car): the Eurostar, departing from Brussels. The ferry wasn't too bad, but then, neither was the weather if my memory serves me correctly. The trip can easily be made by train (remember to check in at least 20 minutes before departure!), but the passage through the Channel Tunnel isn't very exciting: it took about fifteen to twenty minutes in total darkness ; some of the passengers drove backwards, which gave the impression of a ghost house ride!
In 2002 on our holiday in the West Country, we made the trip by car and took the Shuttle car service (train plus car) from Calais. The Shuttle can be booked in advance, there's a check-in time of some fifteen to twenty minutes, and you'll have the opportunity to buy tax-free products.
In 2010, on our London trip, we travelled as train passengers once more, just as I had done in 2001.
In London take the tube, travel by train in the south-east. The trains are very old-fashioned by European standards, but you'll arrive in time (at least, that was my experience - of course some say you won't...)
2010 found me with three weeks to see to personal matters and meet friends and relatives.
On arrival at Heathrow I had to travel by Underground to Richmond. Anyone spending time in the London area will find an Oyster card invaluable. It is valid both on the Underground and on London buses. You pre-pay a sum of money and then for every journey touch a pad before entering the Underground or by the driver of a bus. This records where the journey begins.
After finishing my stay in London, I went to King's Cross Station to travel to Inverness. I used the East Coast Railway which follows, obviously the east route. This took us past Peterborough, York, Newcastle and Berwick on Tweed before crossing the border into Scotland. The scenery varied from canals with brightly coloured barges on them, industrial towns with smoking furnaces, fields of rape, rolling countryside with villages dotted here and there and large towns too.
The whole journey to Inverness took 8 hours 8 minutes. Later I did the same journey from Inverness to Euston by Scotrail. This time I took the sleeper which left Inverness around 8.45pm and got into Euston about 8 am.
Next I retraced part of the route from Euston to Rugeley in the Midlands, and from there across country from Stafford to Nottingham. All journeys were comfortable and trains left and arrived on time.Related to:
- Family Travel
THE (NORTH) END OF THE LINE - RAIL TRAVEL
Thurso Train Station is the end of the line – quite literally. It is the northernmost Rail Station in Great Britain. Located on Princes Street, this small station is they way to travel south to Inverness where you can then access the entire British rail network. The station was opened on 28 July 1874. It was actually selected for closure in the 1960s, but survives to this day so you can travel to the very top of the UK mainland.
The station itself is open Monday-Saturday 09:50-16:54. For some reason some websites show them opening 1 hour late on Saturday. I base the times on the sign on the wall inside that station. There is a side gate to get to the single platform (of course!) outside of opening hours. You can buy a ticket on the train without any problem.
During opening hours you have:
• Rail staff for any questions, tickets, assistance
• Accessible unisex toilet
• Induction loop at ticket office window (for hearing impaired passengers)
• Luggage trolleys
• Post Box
• Car park (3 spaces, 1 is handicapped) – 24 hour
• Taxi rank
• Public (pay) phone
• 3 cycle racks. (not covered)
They also have Left Luggage Lockers for £3 a day. They are accessible Monday - Saturday 10:00-16:30, closed Sundays!
Thurso station is on the Far North Line and is 154 miles (248 km) north of Inverness.
After arriving at Thurso the trains often go back to Georgemas Junction and then on to Inverness in around 3 ½ hours. The journey follows the coast line for most of your journey and is arguably the most scenic rail journey in the UK.
Address: Princes Street, Thurso, Highland, KW14 7DL
It is about a 5-7 minute walk to shops and accommodation (300m/1000ft). You may want to just walk to most places rather then asking for a taxi.
For details of onward bus services, visit www.travelinescotland.com or call +44 (0) 871 200 22 33 (24 hours).
For full details of train times and calling points (stations), please have a look at the National Rail Enquiries WebsiteRelated to:
- Business Travel
St Pancras Station
St Pancras Station is now home to the Eurostar for Lille, Paris and Brussels. The station has had a complete facelift and it is worth having a look inside even if you are not travelling from here. There are some interesting statues and a champagne bar inside.Related to:
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