Wales is physically separated from England by the Cambrian Mountains.
Nearly every Welsh town or city has a standing castle, a proof of its turbulent past with its neighbours. It was not until 1535 went Wales became part of Great Britain.
About a fifth of the population still speak Welsh language and it is dominant in north Wales.
The rugged terrain helped to resist invasion from the Saxons, although they were conquered by the Romans, they still have a very strong Celtic past.
The Welsh flag can be seen everywhere as a gentle reminder to the visitor that they are in Welsh soil.
It would be fair to say that the average Welshman may have bit of a chip on this shoulder, and indeed in a bag between his knees after a night on the tiles. This comes from being a subject nation of the English. English prejudice is usually very mild, referring to the Welsh as "Taffies" and never on any account "nastly little trolls". The Welsh do however tend to take things more seriously. Terrorist actions to take back the country back have surfaced occasionaly - there was even an attempt to de-rail the royal train before the investature of the Prince of Wales in 1969. The odd English second home has mysteriously gone up in flames over the years as well.
Caernafon has the highest percentage of Welsh speakers in the whole principality. Don't be surprised if the locals witter away in Welsh and exclude you from any conversation - at least until they have worked out that you too are English-speaking due to being ruled over by the English at some point in your history rather than being a representative of the 'oppressor nation'