The Blue Mosque (or Masjid-e Kabud) on the north side of Imam Khomeini Avenue, is a 15th-century structure destroyed by one of Tabriz's recurrent earthquakes Despite showing a sorry ruin, it was recently restored with the utmost skill. Because of the blue tiles used in the decoration of both interior and exterior of the mosque, it has become to be known as the Turquoise of Islam.
What remains of the mosque is a witness to its earlier grandeur and splendor. Completed in 1465 by Nimatullah ibn Mohammad Bavvab, architect of Prince Jahan Shah Torkman Salimi (of the Qara Qoyunlu rulers) even today its Timurid tile work (main entrance) with a blue-on-white inscription band of mosaic tile in Riqa' calligraphy is of a magnificence rivaling that of the Sanctuary of Mash had, as well as a remarkable aspect of the new techniques, designs and wider range of colors used here.
The entrance portal with its two minarets appears to have been connected with the main prayer hall (Shabestan) under the largest cupola of the mosque, by means of vaulted corridor
On both sides along the corridor, there stand the remains of the chambers with vaulted roofs. The walls of the mosque have been riveted with marble slabs and decorated with superb mosaic tiles. Some of the blue mosaics in the mosque's portal are heavily damaged and half missing. The mosque is now almost permanently closed, but renovation work and eventual reopening seem inevitable.
Azarbaijan Museum, constructed in 1957 and inaugurated in 1962, is on Imam Khomeini Ave (next to the Blue Mosque). With an area of 3000 square meters, it consists of the following three main sections: A} Ethnological Section, representing costumes and characteristics of various tribes and peoples of Iran;B) Archaeological Section, exhibiting objects dating back to the fourth millennium BC. Here one can see coins, weapons, decorative objects, domestic utensils and tile works. These objects were excavated in Mushlan, Hassanlu, Qara Tappeh, Khosrow Shah, and Marlik. C) History of Col)stitutional Revolution Section, containing photographs and documents of interest from the Constitutional Revolution of Iran.
Visiting Hours. Everyday 07:30 am-14:30PM. Tel. (041) 66343,65298.
Before you leave Tabriz, do not miss El Goli or the National Park (former Shah Goli), a pleasant hillside garden and park around an artificial lake to the area of 54,675 square meters in the style of the much smaller Bagh-e Takht north of Shiraz or the Qasr-e Qajar north of Tehran. El Goli, only 4 km south of downstream Tabriz, is so lovely a place that it deserves an illustration. It is a popular weekend resort for the locals.
A hill in the eastern side of the park leads down to the pool with steps, and a fountain from top of the hill flows down to the pool. In the center of the pool there is a grand hexagonal building. The pool itself is said to have been built during the reign of Aq Qoyunlu kings. However, it was extended by the Safavids. During the rule of Qahraman Mirza, son of Abbas Mirza of Qajar dynasty, it was fundamentally repaired. Recently a big park has been built on the Airport Road, which attracts many visitors.
In the second Irano-Russian War the city was occupied by the Czar troops. However, it was returned to Iran following the signing of Turkmanchai Treaty, a peace and trade settlement that ended the Irano-Russian War of 1826-1828.
The Iranian Constitutional Revolution originated in Tabriz and culminated during the reign of Mohammad Ali Shah of Qajar dynasty (1779-1925). Sattar Khan and Baqer Khan were the two most prominent leading figures behind the movement.
Tabriz was occupied by Russians several times in the first half of this century, including most of both world wars. A railway line to the border at Jolfa, built by the expansionist Russians, was of little importance until recently, but it has increased in significance in the '90s as a result of Iran's friendlier relations with its northern neighbors
The city has a long and turbulent history: although the early history of Tabriz is shrouded in legend and mystery, the town's origin is believed to date back to distant antiquity, perhaps even before the Sassanian era (224-651AD). The oldest stone tablet with a reference to Tabriz is that of Sargon the second, the Assyrian King. The tablet refers to a place called Tauri Castle and Tarmkis. The historians believe this castle was situated on the site of the present day Tabriz.
It was the capital of Azarbaijan in the 3rd century AD and again under the Mongol Ilkhanid dynasty (1256 - 1353), although for some time Maragheh supplanted it.
During the reign of Aqa Khan of the Ilkhanids, as well as under the reign of Ghazan Khan, Tabriz reached the peak of glory and importance. Many great artists and philosophers from all over the world traveled to Tabriz.
In 1392, after the end of Mongol rule, the town was sacked by Tamerlane. It was soon restored under the Turkman tribe of the Qara Qoyunlu, who established a short-lived local dynasty. Under the Safavids it rose from regional to national capital for a short period, but the second of the Safavid kings, Shah Tahmasb, moved the capital to Qazvin because of the vulnerability of Tabriz to Ottoman attacks. The town then went into a period of decline, fought over by the Iranians, Ottomans and Russians and struck by earthquake .
Tabriz was the residence of the crown prince under the Qajar kings, but the town did not return to prosperity until the second half of the 19th century. The greatest boost to Tabriz came with the opening up of Iran to the West at the turn of this century, when it became the main staging post between the interior of Iran and the Black Sea and,for a short time, the economic capital. In 1908 it was the center of a revolt against Mohammad Ali Shah, which was only put down with the brutal intervention of the Russians.
Arabs refer to it as Azarbaijan. In Armenian books both Azarbayaghan and Azarbadaghan are recorded. In ancient Pahlavi books it is listed as Aturpatgan.
As an explanation for the origin and appearance of the name Azarbaigan, Strabo (63 B.C. - 24 A.D.), the famous Greek geographer happens to be the most accurate. According to him, at the end of the Achaemenid Empire, When Alexander of Macedonia was prevailing in Iran, an Iranian commander by the name of Aturpat, fought successfully against the invaders of Macedonia and prevented them from capturing this region ( part of the " Median territory referred to as the smaller Mede -Maad e Koochek). Thus, this land was named after him - The Aturpatgan. People elected Aturpat as their sovereign and he protected their independence and ruled independently during Alexander's attack on Iran ( 328 B.C.). Aturpat and his children ruled for three centuries independently of Selukian and Ashkanian (Parthian) dynasties over this land in the Northwest of the country which became Iran again later. Strabo, in his book, which was written at the time of the Parthians and close to the birth of Jesus, declares that:
A big city in Iran.
It's located in north west of Iran and has very historical palaces.
You can find very old building and mosques in Tabriz such as Kabood mosque,Bazzar ...