Ferdowsi The highly revered Persian poet & father of the modern Persian language was born 935 in Bazh a village near Tus & died around 1020 CE in poverty and embittered by royal neglect.
Ferdowsi was buried at the yard of his own home, where his mausoleum now lies. It was not until Reza Shah Pahlavi's rule, in 1925, that a mausoleum was built for the great poet.
His great epic The Shahnameh (The Epic of Kings), to which he devoted more than 35 years, was originally composed for presentation to the Samanid princes of Khorasan, who were the chief instigators of the revival of Iranian cultural traditions after the Arab conquest of the seventh century.
Ferdowsi started his composition of the Shahnameh in the Samanid era in 977 A.D. During Ferdowsi’s lifetime the Samanid dynasty was conquered by the Ghaznavid Turk Empire.
Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni had promised Ferdowsi a dinar for every distich written in the Shahnameh (60,000 dinars), but later retracted and presented him with dirhams (20,000 dirhams), which were at that time much less valuable than dinars (every 100 dirhams worth 1 dinar)
Ferdowsi rejected the money and, by some accounts, he gave it to a poor man who sold wine. Wandering for a time in Sistan and Mazandaran, he eventually returned to Tus, heartbroken and enraged.
Anvari a famous poet in his own right remarks about the eloquence of the Shahnameh:"He was not just a Teacher and we his students. He was like a God and were his slaves".
The greatest achievement of Ferdowsi is to have all of the named fragments of the former Persian Empire, once again recite together:
"if there is no Iran, may my body be vanquished, and in this land and nation no one remain alive, if everyone of us dies one by one, it is better than giving our country to the enemy."
If there is a single document in the Persian literature that can reunite Persia and all of its nations, it is this document.
Ferdowsi Museum or Tous Museum was established in1987 close to Mausoleum of Ferdowsi.
mainly hold objects about Ferdowsi & his time.
as some old copies of Shaname,
potteries from Ferdowsi time,
paintings about shahname & Ferdowsi portraits,
published stamps in honor of Ferdowsi,
gifts to Mausoleum of Ferdowsi,
old warfare Equipments.
& some other discovered objects in region.
It’s open from 8 am to 17pm except Fridays.
Admission is IR3,000 (86/2007)
Harounieh Dome is whole thing that Tatar remained from Tous.
Harounieh Dome Called Haroun's Prison, Mamonyye, Mousque of Tous or Ghazali's Khanghah during ages.
but it's not prison & built centuries after Haroun Al-Rashid the Abbasid caliph.
There is no inscription in the building but it seems to be a mausoleum or Khanghah from Ilkhanid dynasty. (13-14th cent.)
vast dome shaped square of height 25 m, and 12x12 sq. m area, with 3 inter-connected booths in the end of the building with fine stucco decoration on ceiling.
an Exhibition of some inscriptions & models of some monument in region is in building.
a Ghazali's memorial & Tabaran monument & Dr. Khadivjam tomb are in area
Mehdi Akhavan-Sales (1928, Mashhad - 1990, Tehran) was a prominent Persian poet. He is one of the pioneers of Free Verse (New Style Poetry) in Persian language.
Akhavan's forte, like Ferdowsi, is epic; more precisely, he chooses themes of epical proportion and expresses them with the same zeal that Ferdowsi uses in the Shahnameh.
His famous works are:
Winter (Zemestan, 1956)
The Ending of Shahnameh (Akhare Shahnameh, 1959)
From This Avesta(Az ein Avesta, 1965)
He is buried on at west side of Mausoleum of Ferdowsi near museum.
Darvaze Razan (Razan Gate) & ruins of rampart of Tabaran of Tous located in north side of Mausoleum of Ferdowsi.
The rampart is about 6km long, 10m height, 6m thickness in bottom & 2.5m at top.
this Rampart has been built after Oghuz turk & Mongols invasion.
& then it has been destroyed by Tattars in ~1388.
in Mausoleum, Scenes from the main episodes of Shahnameh carved into reliefs done by Abolhasan Sedighi.
& in stairways, there are Scenes about Persian empire.
1. Sassanid Court
2 & 3. the Seven Stages of Rostam
4. Rostam and Esfandyar
5. Coming of King of India to Iranian court
Shahname is the national epic poem of over 60,000 couplets. Recounts the history of Iran, beginning with the creation of the world & the introduction of the arts of civilization (fire, cooking, metallurgy, law) to the Aryans & ends with the Arab conquest of Persia in the 7th cent.
Ferdowsi wrote Shahname in almost pure Persian, has been pivotal for reviving the Persian language subsequent to the influence of Arabic. Reflects Iran's history, its cultural values, its ancient religions (Zoroastrianism & Mithraism), & its profound sense of nationhood.
I suffered during these 30 years, but I have revived the Iranians with the Persian language, I shall not die since I am alive again, as I have spread the seeds of this language
Shahname is divided in 3 sections:
The mythical age:
From the first man, Keyumars, who also became the first king after a period of mountain dwelling. His grandson Hushang, son of Siyamak, discovered fire & established the Sadeh Feast in its honor. Stories of Tahmuras, Jamshid, Zahhak, Kaveh, Fereydun & his three sons Salm, Tur & Iraj & his grandson Manuchehr are explained in this section.
The heroic age:
from Manuchehr's reign until the conquest of Alexander.
about Saka or Sistani heroes who appear as the backbone of the Persian Empire.
Garshasp & his son Nariman & own son Sam.
His successors were his son Zal & his son Rostam, the bravest of the brave & then Faramarz.
Among the stories described in this section are the romance of Zal & Rudaba, the Seven Stages of Rostam, Rostam & Sohrab, Siyavash & Sudabe, Rostam & Akvan Div, the romance of Bizhan & Manizheh, the wars with Afrasiyab.
The historical age:
A brief mention of the Parthian dynasty & the Sassanid dynasty then the fall of the Sassanids & the Arab conquest of Iran are narrated romantically & in a most moving poetic language. the reader could easily see Ferdowsi himself lamenting over this catastrophe, & over what he calls the arrival of "the army of darkness".
The construction of Mausoleum began in the year 1928 and work came to an end in 1934 during Reza Shah Pahlavi to celebrate the 1000th anniversary of the poet.
In the year 1964 a few changes were made in the structure.
The overall shape of Ferdowsi's tomb is reminiscent of the Mausoleum of Cyrus the Great at Pasargadae & in Mausoleum there are a series of modern bas-relief illustrating of the main episodes from Shahnameh.
Each side wall of the building is approximately 30 m. x 30 m. as 30 years of work on Shahname, worked with marble it is adorned by verses from the Shahnameh in the Nasta'liq script.
Above the southern side, a relief of Farvahar the Symbol of Zoroazterian Iran has been installed.
sculpture like Persepolis columns shaped the Corners.
30 fountains at front of Mausoleum are Symbol of 30 years of work on Shahname
20 sculpture in Mausoleum are the Symbol of 20th cent. date of contraction
40 lights in Mausoleum are the Symbol of 4th decade (in Persian calendar). date of contraction
Ferdowsi wrote in the end Shahnameh:
"Buildings of the city suffer deterioration
From the raindrop and the ray of sunlight."
"I founded a great palace of verse [The Shahnameh]
That is impervious to the wind and the rain"
"I shall not die, these seeds [of discourse] I've sown will save
My name and reputation from the grave,"
"And men of sense and wisdom will proclaim,
When I have gone, my praises and my fame."
Ghazali (Algazel) was born & died in Tous (1058-1111). He was a Muslim theologian, jurist, philosopher, and mystic of Persian origin and remains one of the most celebrated scholars in the history of Sufi Islamic thought. Moreover, one of his major works, The Incoherence of the Philosophers, changed the course of Islamic thought.
Memorial of Ghazali in granite stone installed in front of Harounieh Dome.
this item is unique in own way.
"Polish soldiers far from Poland present their passion to the poet, great Ferdowsi. 1943"
Remnants Tabran of old Tous is archaeological site in Harounieh Dome area.
it's columned space & probably was School or Mosque from Seljuq era (11th cent.)
an Exhibition of some inscriptions & models of some monuments in Khorasan province is held in Harounieh Dome.