Anýtkabir (literally, "memorial tomb") is the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the leader of Turkish War of Independence and the founder and first president of the Republic of Turkey. It was designed by architects Professor Emin Onat.
The site chosen for Anýtkabir was known as Rasattepe (Observation Hill), which, at the time of the architectural competition for Anýtkabir, was a central location in Ankara and could be seen by all parts of the city.
You may watch my high resolution photo of Ankara on the Google Earth according to the following coordinates 39º 55' 31.51" N 32º 50' 15.20" E or on my Google Earth Panoramio Anitkabir - Hall of Honor .
The approach at the monument is a 262 meters long pedestrian walkway that is lined on both sides by 12 pairs of lions carved in a style like the Hittite archaeological finds. The lions represent Anatolia and are sitting to simultaneously represent both power peace. There is a 5 cm. gap between the paving stones on the Street of Lions to ensure that visitors take their time and observe respectful behavior on their way to Atatürk's tomb.
The park that surrounds the monument is called a Peace Park in honor of Atatürk's famous expression "Peace at home, peace in the world." It contains around 50,000 decorative trees, flowers and shrubs in 104 varieties, donated from around 25 countries.
You may watch my high resolution photo of Ankara on the Google Earth according to the following coordinates 39º 55' 34.41" N 32º 50' 8.40" E or on my Google Earth Panoramio Anitkabir - Street of Lions .
Atatürk's tomb is situated right under the symbolic 40-ton sarcophagus in the ground floor of The Hall of Honor, and Atatürk's corpse is buried below this in a special Tomb Room in the basement level.
The room has an octagonal plan in Seljuk and Ottoman architectural styles, and its pyramidal ceiling is inlaid with gold mosaics.
The Hall of Honor is the iconic symbol of Anýtkabir and the location of Atatürk's tomb. The structure is about 41 x 57 m in plan and rises to a height of 17 m, with the columns themselves measuring about 14 meters.
You may watch my 2 min 08 sec VIDEO-Clip Ankara Anitkabir - Mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk with Turkey national anthem.
The Ceremonial Plaza is situated at the end of the Lions Road. The area is 129 m. long and 84 m. wide and was designed to accommodate 15,000 people. The floor is decorated with 373 rug and kilim (Turkish carpet) patterns, and is made of travertine in various colors.
You may watch my high resolution photo of Ankara on the Google Earth according to the following coordinates 39º 55' 30.15" N 32º 50' 13.19" E or on my Google Earth Panoramio Anýtkabir - the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk .
Kemal Ataturk was the founder of Turkey Republic and he’s the most important person in Turkish history. He was the one the brought the capital here in Ankara it was no surprise he was buried here after his death in 1938.
There is no entrance fee but they will search your bags at the entrance although we had to leave bags at the car, pass through security screening and then get in the car again! (so, no one checked the bags!!).
The park is nice to walk with a lot of statues on the way to mausoleum but if you go up late you wont allowed to get inside. The mausoleum is lit during the night and I had the opportunity to watch it from close distance from a nearby house of a local friend. Pic 1 shows the mausoleum litted during the night while at pic 2 you can see it during the day light.
The mausoleum that houses his body is a huge and impressive building with the Hall Of Honor at the center. There is a symbolic sarcophagus there for the public (pic 3) but the real one (which is directly under it) is closed to the public view. The monumental mausoleum was designed in 1941 by architects Emin Onat and Orhan Arda. The construction began in 1944 but completed in 1953.
We walked up the 42 steps and saw from closer distance the rectangular plan of the structure (8 twering columns front and back and 14 columns at the sides)
At the entrance of the mausoleum there are 2 inscriptions at the side walls. The first one on the right (pic 4) is Ataturk’s last message to the Turkish army at 29/10/1938. The inscription at the left wall is Inonu’s message to the Turkish nation.
Ismet Inonu (1884-1973) was the first prime minister and the second president of the Turkish republic. He is buried opposite Ataturk in a smaller place that faces Anitcabir (pic 5). He was a commander during the War Of Indepedence, major general in 1921, lieutenant general in 1922, he signed Lausanne treaty on behalf of Turkey in 1923, elected deputy chief of the Republican People’s Party, became the first prime minister, retired from military in 1927, and elected president in 1938 after Ataturk’s passing away, his presidency ended in 1950 but served another term as prime minister between 1961 and 1965.
Don’t miss also the surrounded area, the museum, the library, the Walk of Lions etc (see next tip)
The mausoleum of the Turkish Republic's founder and leader, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, Anitkabir was built on the hill of Rasattepe. It was completed in 1953. Ataturk, who died in 1938, was removed from the temporary burial site at the Ethnographic Museum and brought here with a great ceremony the same year.
Within the Anitkabir complex, there are many towers named after important events/organisations in the Turkish history. The hallowed Mausoleum hall itself is a colonnaded temple with huge bronze doors but little in the way of decoration. Opposite is the tomb of Ismet Inonu, the first prime minister of the Turkish republic and president after Ataturk's death.
The Anitkabir museum is located between the Tower of the National Pact and the Tower of the Revolution. A number of Ataturk's personal belongings are exhibited, including clothes that he wore, and gifts presented to him by visiting foreign officials.
When I went there I was about 10 years old, and thought the whole site was quite impressive with its size and design, especially with the passage to the Mausoleum with lion statues on both sites.
Opening hours: Winter - 0900-1200 & 1300-1700. Summer - 0900-1230 & 1330-1700, closed on Mondays.
Apparently, there is a sound & light show at nights but please check it in advance.
Anýt Kabir, or Monumental tomb, the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk is one of the highlights of a visit to Ankara. It stands on top of a small hill in a park about 2 km west of Kýzýlay. Atatürk was the founder of the modern Turkish republic and managed to save the country's territorial integrity in the war of independence against the Greeks. In addition he was the man who gave back to the Turks their identity and self-esteem. One of his famous quotations is: "Ne mutlu Türküm diyene", meaning "How happy is he who can say I am Turkish".
For me, this is my favourite place to visit in Ankara. I like the vast, open spaces, and unfussy architecture, with the solemn, but unstuffy air of respect.
I've visited it twice, both times with my friend Bilal and his friends who were born and have always lived in Ankara, so this has probably added to my experience of the importance of this place to them and their families.
Anit Kabir (ah-NUHT-kah-beer) means monumental tomb.
Yes, this vast site spreads for over one km square, engulfing the whole hillside towards the centre of Ankara
The mausoleum is situated in landscaped parkland, with paths and steps leading to a courtyard, which is surrounded by the sarcophagus of Ismet Inonu (Ataturks close friend and Chief of Staff), and a museum housing personal effects and memorabilia of Ataturk.
Opposite Inonus' sarcophagus is the Mausoleum of Ataturk.
The mausoleum was built between 1944 and 1953. Its' design appears modern, with straight lines, and light stonework, but there are carvings and statues depicting Hittite, Roman and Seljuk influences on Anatolian history.
The rectangular Mausoleum has an exterior of pillars, 10 at the front and the back, 14 at each side, each stretching the full height of the building.
Exerpts from Ataturks speech made on the 10th Anniversary of the Turkish Republic, are inscribed on the wall, which is near the entrance.
Entering the tomb, through huge bronze doors, the interior walls are made of red marble, with the ceiling decorated in gold , with Turkish motifs. The tomb itself is below the huge marble monolith.
15 years after his death, (On November 10th 1938 in Istanbul) Kemal Mustafa Ataturks body was transported from the Ethnographic Museum, where it had lain over these years, then was finally laid to rest here.
World leaders, politicians and dignitaries,visiting Ankara, usually visit this site to pay their respects, as do hundreds of Turkish citizens and visitors from around the world.
Open 0900 - 1200 13.30- 1700 April - Sept - closes 1600 Oct - March.
Although there are various entrances to this site, the intention was for the mausoleum to be approached from the main entrance on Anit Caddesi.
Gardens to each side of the road, contain plants and trees that have been sent as gifts from various corners of the world.
At my last visit, the lilac trees were in full bloom, perfuming the air. (My friends friend asked the guard if he could pick a bloom for me, which he allowed, and I still have it pressed in my photo album)
From the ticket office (Where I believe there is now a security check with x-raying of bags)
head towards the stone steps which are flanked by 2 groups of statues.
On the left hand side, 3 male figures- a soldier, a villager and a student, who represent defence, productivity and education.
Opposite are 3 female figures, one at the back is silently crying, to represent the peoples grief at the death of Ataturk, the other 2 figures hold a wreath- to symbolise fertility.
The male and female statues are of equal height , as Ataturk had recognised equality of women in the workplace and in voting.
The statues are situated in front of two towers representing Independence and Liberty/ Freedom.
The Towers have pyramid shaped roofs, with a bronze spear . (This was the custom for Turkish war tents)
The long avenue leading to Victory Square and Ataturks mausoleum was designed to give an impression of greatness.
The Avenue is known as Lions Way, as it is lined with 24 stone paired Hittite styled Lions, indicating Defence. (A Hittite symbol of Strength and Power).
Atatürk was one of the greatest leader at the world. We were lucky that we had him. He changed the destiny of Türkiye. You may understand how great he was and how important he was for us, by looking to the mouselum and the museum. Atatürk was a military genius, a charismatic leader, also a comprehensive reformer in his life.
Chronology of Reforms: (There are many, I can't write all of them here...)
1922 Sultanate abolished (November 1).
1923 Treaty of Lausanne secured (July 24). Republic of Turkey with capital at Ankara proclaimed (October 29).
1924 Caliphate abolished (March 3). Traditional religious schools closed, Sheriat (Islamic Law) abolished. Constitution adopted (April 20).
1925 Dervish brotherhoods abolished. Fez outlawed by the Hat Law (November 25). Veiling of women discouraged; Western clothing for men and women encouraged. Western (Gregorian) calendar adopted.
1926 New civil, commercial, and penal codes based on European models adopted. New civil code ended Islamic polygamy and divorce by renunciation and introduced civil marriage. Millet system ended.
1927 First systematic census.
1928 New Turkish alphabet (modified Latin form) adopted. State declared secular (April 10); constitutional provision establishing Islam as official religion deleted.
1933 Islamic call to worship and public readings of the Kuran (Quran) required to be in Turkish rather than Arabic.
1934 Women given the vote and the right to hold office. Law of Surnames adopted - Mustafa Kemal given the name Kemal Atatürk (Father of the Turks) by the Grand National Assembly; Ismet Pasha took surname of Inönü.
1935 Sunday adopted as legal weekly holiday. State role in managing economy written into the constitution.
Atatürk said something for Australian soldiers after the Battle of Gallipoli:
Those heroes that shed their blood and lost their lives;
You are now lying in the soil of a friendly country.
Therefore rest in peace.
There is no difference between the Johnnies
and the Mehmets to us where they lie side by side
here in this country of ours.
You, the mothers,
who sent their sons from far away countries,
wipe away your tears;
your sons are now lying in our bosom and are in peace.
After having lost their lives on this land they have become our sons as well."
"Peace at Home, Peace in the World" Mustafa Kemal ATATURK
All countries have a “hero” on their independence history. Even if you don’t have any idea on Turkey history you should have read Turkish Independence War and heard of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of today’s secular Turkish Republic and one of the great figures of the 20th century.
Anıtkabir (Atatürk’s Mausoleum), which stands in the middle of Ankara and gleaming at nights, is the first point meeting the visitors arriving Ankara by plane. If you are residing a higher place in Ankara this Mausoleum will draw your attention.
If you wish to learn more about Atatürk who started the Independence War and created Turkey from the remains of Ottoman Empire you should visit Anıtkabir.
Anıtkabir is the symbol of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and the Turkish Republic. In almost all brochures introducing Turkey, Ankara is symbolized with Anıtkabir. It is located in the city center and on top of a hill, which is called Anıttepe and also the second highest point of Ankara after Ankara Kalesi.
When Atatürk died on November 10, 1938 he was temporarily buried at the Ethnographic Museum in Ankara. Then an international competition was announced for a mausoleum, specifying that the designs should symbolize the achievements and personality of Atatürk and through him the Turkish nation. After the evaluation of forty-nine designs, the joint project of Turkish architects Prof. Emin Onat and Asst. Prof. Dr. Orhan Arda were selected. This magnificent mausoleum, Anıtkabir, was completed in 1953 and is a synthesis of antique and modern architectural themes proving the elegance and strength of Turkish architecture. Atatürk’s body transferred to Anıtkabir on November 10, 1953.
Visitors approach this imposing building along a road bright with flowers through a park. A parking lot is located on the west entrance of the park. As you climb the steps three groups of statutes comes into sight describing the mourning after Atatürk’s death. These statues are in front of two 10-meter high towers. Behind the statues stretches the Lion Road, lined by 24 statutes of Hittite lions, which are symbolizing serenity, power and protectiveness. The road leads into an open square (Victory Square) which can accommodate forty thousand people on ceremonial occasions and surrounded by three galleries with 20 meter high columns (8 each in the front and back and 14 each along the sides. At the center of the steps there is an inscription bearing Atatürk’s famous words, “Sovereignty belongs unconditionally to the nation”.
Atatürk’s mausoleum is on the left of the square. He lies beneath the green and gold mosaic floor of the octagonal room under the Great Hall (Hall of Honor) and jars containing soul from each city of Turkey are lined around the grave. Official ceremonies are held in the great hall, where a symbolic marble sarcophagus stands.
On the exit of Anıtkabir towards Çankaya two towers stand on the two sides of the stairs, which are called “23 Nisan” and “Misak-ı Milli”. The area following these towers is organized as Atatürk Museum. Atatürk’s civil and official cloths, his personal belongings, various gifts presented to him, many documents and photos are being exhibited here. You can pass to Inkılap (Reform) Tower from the museum Thorough a small gate and the inside is organized as Atatürk Library. There are several books written in Turkish or in foreign language belonging to Atatürk. These books and handwritten notes of Atatürk create a large archive.
When you leave the Hall of Honor you are going to see resting sites and buffets on the right.
Anıtkabir is illuminated at nights and on certain days of the week light and sound shows are arranged here.
Anıtkabir is open everyday between 09:00-17:00
At the end of the 300 metre long Lions Way, you enter a vast square, with colonades on 3 sides, with the 4th side facing the Mausoleum.
To the right (beneath the western colonnade) is the sarcophagus of Ismet Inonu (1884 -1973), Ataturks close friend, who became second president of the Republic, following Ataturks death on 10th November 1938 in Istanbul.
The East side, houses a museum containing memorabilia and personal items of Ataturk, including his items of clothing, gifts from worldwide dignitaries, and his official cars, such as American built Lincolns.
From the square you have views over Ankara, as well as being a good place for 'people watching' -
Sitting around is not encouraged though!- there are no benches, and sitting on the steps or walls is prohibited- (no walking on the grass either) nearby soldiers keep an eye out for anyone daring to rest their derriere on any of the stonework!
Flying above the square, is the Turkish Flag, the symbol of the Turkish nation.
The flag pole was a gift from a Turkish citizen living abroad, and is made of a single piece of steel.
It weighs 5,000kg and reaches 110ft high. Topping it is a 22ct gold plated crescent.
Anitkabir is the great mausoleum and monument to Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the creator of the Republic of Turkey and the man who lead Turkey's fight for survival after WWI in the face of Allied attempts to carve it up further and a Greek invasion.
It is massive, extremely powerful and impressive, and one of the most important monuments in all of Turkey.
It includes an extensive museum on Ataturk and the War of Independence (the fight against the Greeks and others after WWI). This includes detailed, life-sized dioramas of major battles and displays of many of Ataturk's personal effects, as well as displays on his reforms and others, men and women, who worked with Ataturk in the War of Independence and in shaping the Turkish Republic.
Anitkabir is very important as a mouseleum for us. But museum part is also important. You may see everything about Atatürk even his wax, war on independence with different things. At the end of the museum you may rest at nice coffe place and buy something from shop.