In 1868 the German businessman Heinrich Schliemann, who considered himself as the great archaeologist, visited Calvert and secured permission to excavate Hisarlik. In the 1870s he excavated the hill and discovered the ruins of a series of ancient cities dating from the Bronze Age to the Roman period. Schliemann declared one of these cities to be the city of Homeric Troy.
Schliemann's finds at Hisarlik have become known as Priam's Treasure. They were acquired from him by the Berlin museums, but significant doubts about their authenticity persist.
He imagined King Priam as a rich king. That’s why when he found treasure in Troy he called it the "treasure of Priam". He believed that they were the jewels of Helen. Putting them on his wife Sophia, he addressed her "you are my beautiful Helen".
You will see this giant map of Troia with the hearty welcome just after you leave your car or a bus. Troy as a legendary city and centre of the Trojan War attracts a lot of tourists from all over the world. It was one of the main attractions in my rout across Turkey and I was happy to see it with my own eyes.
Now it is the name of an archaeological site, the traditional location of Homeric Troy, at the Hisarlik Hill, close to the seacoast.
Today there is a Turkish town called Truva in the vicinity of the archaeological site, but this town has grown up recently to service the tourist trade.
The archaeological site is officially called Troia by the Turkish government and appears as such on many maps.
Fondest memory: You may watch my high resolution photo of Troy on the Google Earth according to the following coordinates 39° 57' 23.66" N 26° 14' 27.12" E or on my Google Earth Panoramio Hearty welcome to Troia.
For a long time Troy and the Trojan War were consigned to the realms of legend. The true location of ancient Troy remained the subject of interest and speculation.
In 1822 the Scottish journalist Charles Maclaren reviewed the available material and published “A dissertation on the topography of the plain of Troy”. He identified the position of the Acropolis of Augustus's New Ilium in north-western Anatolia.
In 1866 Frank Calvert made extensive surveys and published in scholarly journals his identification of the hill of New Ilium as the site of ancient Troy.
You can watch my 2 min 40 sec HQ Video Troy slide show part I out of my Youtube channel with music by Vangelis.
Fondest memory: You may watch my high resolution photo of Troy on the Google Earth according to the following coordinates 39° 57' 28.02" N 26° 14' 22.02" E or on my Google Earth Panoramio Troy Excavations 1 .
After Schliemann the site was further excavated under the direction of Wilhelm Dörpfeld (1893-94) and later Carl Blegen (1932-38). These excavations have shown that there were at least nine cities built one on top of each other at this site.
You can watch my 2 min 35 sec HQ Video Troy slide show part II out of my Youtube channel with music by Vangelis.
You may watch my high resolution photo of Troy on the Google Earth according to the following coordinates 39° 57' 25.98" N 26° 14' 16.75" E or on my Google Earth Panoramio Troy Excavations .
Only a small minority of scientists argued that Homeric Troy was not in Anatolia. They placed it elsewhere: in Italy, England, Croatia, Scandinavia etc. But these theories have not been accepted by mainstream scholars.
I belong to those sceptics who don’t think that Hisarlik is the place where Homeric Troy was located. After the Russian scientists Nikolai Morozov and Anatoly Fomenko and their New Chronlogy Theory I think that Homeric Troy was located in Constantinople and the Trojan War took place in the early middle ages.
Have a look at this video Homer's "Iliad" tells the tale of the First Crusade?.
And there are a lot of arguments which convinced me in this theory…
I don’t want to put here on VT these arguments – it isn’t the place where such ideas can be discussed. But after visiting the Hisarlik Citadel my opinion became even stronger.
Troy was a city several times destroyed and rebuilt. This is the reason why archeologists found many cities built one on top of the other. This cities have received names according to their ages: Troy 1 the oldest...
Homer's Troy is believed to be the 7th
Troy was believed to have been an invention of Homer until 1890, when this amateur german-american archeologist discovered the ruins of the city.
He was a self-made millionaire whose highest inerests where Homer and the greek world. In spite of the general opinion, he believed that Troy existed, so he used all his fortune to come here, look for it... and finally found it! He's been critizised for not being a true professional, but he believed in his dreams and made them true.
After discovering this, he went to Peloponesus and unearthed most of ancient Mycenae too!!!
Troy was lost until 1871 when Heinrich Schliemann discovered it. He used Homer's Iliad to locate the site and with permission from the Ottoman government excavated it at his own expense. He uncovered four ancient superimposed towns (nine have been found since). He also found the treasures of Troy II which he removed from the site and gave to Germany.
According to Homer's Iliad this is the town of Ilium where the battle took place during the 1200's BC with Agamemnon, Achilles, Odysseus, Patroclus and Nestor on the Greek side and Priam, Hector, and Paris on the Trojan side. This 10 year war was started when Paris kidnapped Helen from her husband Menelaus. The war finally ended when the Greeks invaded Troy using the famous wooden horse. The inhabitants of Troy can be dated to the Bronze Age 3000-1800 BC (Troy I through Troy V). Of the settlement's nine levels, Troy VI is the city presumed to be Homer's Troy (Truva), which was engaged in the Trojan War. The last people to reside in Troy were Turkish soldiers in 1300 AD until Schliemann happened upon the site in the 19th century
For centuries Troy was thought to be a myth. Then when it was found in the 1800's the ruins believed to be the historical Troy being sought were actually much older ruins than that. Then the site was basically plundered and areas disturbed and destroyed before, finally, a real archaeologist identified the Troy of Achilles and Paris and Hector. When the site was found, why was it so hard to identify the Troy we have all heard about?
Actually I find it to be a fairly easy answer. Ancient man always looked to settle in areas that could be defended easily and from which hunting and gathering could be done and crops could be cultivated. So it is no wonder that the high ground rising up southwest of Canakkale, Turkey, and now called Hissarlik Hill, would appeal to early Bronze Age man as far back as 5,000 years. Upon that hill and its slopes was founded a succession of towns. Archeology has discovered nine different settlements that were placed one on top of another. As a city was founded and flourished either natural or man-made disaster would bring it to ruins. Then the next settlement would rise from the previous ashes and ruins.
The Troy settlements 1-5 (I-V) were all in the early Bronze Age (3000-1900BC). The Troy settlements 6-7 (VI-VII) were in the middle and late Bronze Age (around 1300-1100BC) and Troy 7 is the historic city of the Trojan War. From 1100BC to 700BC, no one lived on the site of Troy. Then around 700BC some Greek people settled in a small village (Troy 8), founded long after the Trojan War ended in defeat for the Trojans. The last city on that site was Troy 9 that was built around 300BC. It was called Ilium by the Greeks and Romans and lasted for about 700 years until AD 400. After that it had remained undisturbed until Charles McLaren discovered its existence.
Later on, when Heinrich Schliemann began digging, he thought that Troy 1 must have been destroyed by an earthquake because of the cracks in the foundations. Since the Greeks had destroyed the city with fire according to Homer, this could not be the remains of the city mentioned in the Iliad. Troy II, the next layer up, had been burned. This convinced Schliemann that this must be the Troy of Homer's tale. Schliemann was not a good, just a lucky, archaeologist and he never really found the Troy he sought. But he did find treasure that that was more important to him.
The area around late-Bronze Age Troy was a land of legends and heroes just as much as its contemporary neighbor Greece at that juncture in history. Renowned for the famous Battle of Troy, there are many other legends that center on this same area of the ancient world. For example, near ancient Troy is Mt. Ida. This is a mountain where legend has it that the Gods lived and played in much the same way that the Gods lived and played at Olympus, Greece. It is said that it was from Mt. Ida that the gods watched the Battle of Troy.
One of the most famous of these legends concerning Mt. Ida is about Paris, the man who caused the Trojan War. And that legend is about the world’s first beauty contest.
After Eris, the goddess of discord, had disrupted a wedding being attended by the Gods and Goddesses of Olympus, she provided a golden apple gift to “The Fairest”, ensuring that all of the goddesses would want such a gift. This started many rivalries and even after many years there was a very strong desire among the goddesses to be declared the “Fairest”. Still, after many, many years passed, most of the goddesses finally bowed out until only three were left – Hera, wife of Zeus; Athena, daughter of Zeus; and Aphrodite, the irresistible goddess of love. Not wanting to create a bad problem for himself, Zeus finally declared that a mortal would judge this contest. Zeus then declared that mortal was to be Paris, son of King Priam of Troy who was living as a lowly shepherd on Mt. Ida.
So young Prince Paris of Troy awakened one morning to find himself confronted by three beautiful goddesses—Hera, Athena and Aphrodite—who insisted he judge which one of them was the most beautiful. Dazzled by their beauty, for a time he could only stare in wonder. Their splendor cast a glow over entire hillsides; blossoms unfolded caressingly at their feet and birds trilled into joyful song. And when the goddesses smiled it was as if a shower of stars had fallen about him. It was Hera that described the contest to Paris – he had been selected to decide which of the three goddesses was most beautiful.
As a bribe, each goddess offered Paris what she was best equipped to give: Hera offered him political power and riches beyond his imagination; Athena offered him wisdom and the respect of other men; Aphrodite offered up love – that his bride would be the fairest woman in the world. As a young and naive boy, what did he know of power, riches, and wisdom? But love and beauty Paris could understand and he yearned for it. So slowly and gently he placed the golden apple in the hand of the goddess Aphrodite – making her the “Fairest” of them all. True to her word, Aphrodite found for him the fairest woman in the world, Helen of Troy, wife of King Menelaus of Sparta. However, Helen's husband Menelaus objected when Paris took possession of his wife and fled back to Troy with her. And that is what started the Trojan War.
Homer’s "Iliad” has been the inspiration and guidebook for this famous war. For many centuries it was thought to be only legend but now archeology has discovered the ancient site of Troy and discovered a huge battle that took place in about 1200-1100BC. Homer (700BC) wrote about the battle many centuries after its occurrence.
In 1822 Scottish editor and writer Charles McLaren actually found the site of ancient Troy in Turkey south of Canakkale as ruins on Hisarlik Hill. And then in the 1870's Troy was finally identified by Historian and amateur Archaeologist Heinrich Schlieman, credited with the discovery although he was not the first to dig at the site.
In the 1920s the Swiss scholar Emil Forrer claimed that some city names found in Hittite texts — Wilusa and Taruisa — should be identified with Ilium and Troia respectively. That would mean that Troy was well known to the ancient and warlike Hittite kingdom.
The Hittite empire was composed of people from many diverse ethnic and linguistic backgrounds. The Hittites were a people who created an empire centered in the same general area as where ancient Troy now stands in north-central Anatolia (modern Turkey). Their kingdom lasted from approximately 1800 BC (and possibly before) to 1200 BC. They also created one of the earliest written languages, borrowing from Sumerian cuneiform, in Europe and western Asia.
Favorite thing: After buying your ticket and visiting the reconstruction of the famous Trojan Horse, you'll come to get a first glimpse of how complex this area is, with layer upon layer of building on the ruins of an earlier city. Altogether, there were a total of 9 Troy settlements and luckily there are reconstruction plans posted around the site to get some idea as to what the ruins might have looked like. There's also a designated route around the ruins to follow with information signs at various stages to point out certain features.