Today the modern Turkish town of Bergama surrounds the ancient precipice and partially covers the ruins of Roman Pergamum.
I saw only upper part of the ancient city (the Hill of Acropolis) and described them it my TTD tips.
Entrance Fee: 5 YTL ($3) - You can see my ticket among hidden pics.
Admission: Open 08:30 - 17:30 every day.
From the front of the terrace there is a magnificent view of the lower terraces of the Acropolis, the Theater, the Temple of Trajan, the town of Bergama and the hills beyond the alluvial plain.
Among other Bergama's notable ruins are the Sanctuary of Asclepius, a temple dedicated to an ancient Greek god of healing, and the "Red Basilica" complex ("Kizil Avlu" in Turkish). Unfortuantely I didn’t see them.
You may watch my high resolution photo of Bergama on the Google Earth according to the following coordinates 39° 7' 55.71" N 27° 11' 0.80" E or on my Google Earth Panoramio Bergama from Pergamon Hill .
Bergama is famous as the city which was the ancient Greek and Roman cultural center of Pergamon and because the Pergamenes invented a new substance to use in codices, called pergaminus or pergamena (parchment) after the city.
Its ancient ruins continue to attract considerable tourist interest today and lie to the north and west of the modern city. Roman Pergamon is believed to have sustained a population of approximately 150,000 at its height in the first century AD (now only 50,000 live here).
There are many things to see in both Aesclepion and Acropolis and without an experienced guide it’s easy to miss some important places.
In case you decide to do the visit on your own it’s better to have at least a map of the places presenting the exact location of the ruins.
The natural impuls is just to wander through the ruins but is better to follow the signs which will guide you to each place.
Pergamo Library was famous and even challenged the one at Alexandria.
Before our present paper books and after egyptian papyrus, another material was used for writing texts: parchment ("pergama" in latin, "pergamino" in spanish). This material began to be used in Pergamon famous Library.
When the Egyptians prohibited the export of papyrus, Pergamum King ordered a new material to be found which can take the place of papyrus. What they found was called parchment which was a material made of sheep or goat skin. It was polished first with pumice stone and then slit into sheets. Because of this, the word parchment is used as a synonym of the name Pergamum.
It was built for Asclepius, greek God of Medicine, and it was both a temple and a therapeutic place.
There was a room called "incubation room" where patients had to sleep and in the morning after they had to tell the doctors what did they dream. After these dreams, doctors tried to cure them.
It's on the lower part of the city. The Sacred Way joins it with the Acropolis, upper part of the city.
On top of the acropolis stands this impressive theatre with fabulous views of the valley below. It's a nice place to sit down and have a rest after climbing the hill to see the acropolis. The views are superb, and the quietness helps you relaxing and enjoying.
It was designed for 10.000 people and it has typical Hellenistic characteristics: no permanent stage building and people were able to see outside and beyond the playing area from where they were seated.
Favorite thing: Some more from the archeological site at Bergama. This used to be a medical centre dedicated to the Greek god of medicine.
Favorite thing: The theatre dates from the 3rd century BC. It is in a very good condition and the view from there is amazing!!
Favorite thing: This holy site was built to worship the egyptian gods. In christian times the temple was converted into a church.
Favorite thing: The acropolis hill was surrounded by huge triple walls with defensive purposes. There are still some remains.