The ancient city occupies the territory of several square kilometers. You can see the map of the Ancient city and the typical way of excursion (green color) on the picture.
This place became known since the 19th century. The history of excavation began in 1859-74 on the Odeon and the theatre. It was carried out by J.T.Wood under the auspices of the British Museum. Excavations were carried out on the Temple of Artemis in May 1869.
Regular excavations began in 1895 under the direction of Otto Bendore who was a member of the Viennese Academy.
The excavations directed by R.Heberg on behalf of the Austrian Archaeological Institute uncovered the Agora, the Theatre, the Arcadiane and the Library of Celsus. Operations were suspended during the First World War, but work was resumed in 1926. Excavations were conducted by a large team under the direction of Hermann Vetters on behalf of the Austrian Archaeological Institute.
Ephesus is believed by many to be the Apasa mentioned in Hittite sources as the capital of the kingdom of Arzawa. The Temple of Artemis, the largest building of the ancient world, according to Pausanias and one of the Seven Wonders of the World, of which scarcely a trace remains. Beginning in the Roman Republic, Ephesus was the capital of proconsular Asia, which covered the western part of Asia Minor.
The original city of Ephesus was located on low ground, and was completely flooded by the sea. The city was rebuilt by Lysimachus, who destroyed the cities of Lebedos and Colophon in 292 BCE and relocated their inhabitants to the new city.
The city bore the title of "the first and greatest metropolis of Asia." It was distinguished for the Temple of Artemis (Diana), who had her chief shrine there, for its library, and for its theatre, which would have been capable of holding 25,000 spectators. It was open to the sky; it was used initially for drama, but during later Roman times gladiatorial combats were also held on its stage. The population of Ephesus has been estimated to be in the range of 400,000 to 500,000 inhabitants in the year 100 CE, making it the largest city in Roman Asia and one of the largest cities of the day. Ephesus also had several major bath complexes, built at various points while the city was under Roman rule. The city had one of the most advanced aqueduct systems in the ancient world, with multiple aqueducts of various sizes to supply different areas of the city, including 4 major aqueducts.
Ephesus remained the most important city of the Byzantine Empire after Constantinople in the 5th and 6th centuries. The city was largely abandoned when the harbor completely filled in with river silt, removing its access to the Aegean Sea. When the Seljuk Turks conquered it in 1090, it was a small village. After a short period of flourishing under the new rulers, it was definitively abandoned in the 15th century.
Fondest memory: The great Temple of Artemis was one of the Seven Wonders of the World, is represented only by one inconspicuous column.
Artemis in Greek mythology, is the daughter of Zeus and Leto and the twin sister of Apollo. In later times she was conflated with the goddess Diana of Roman mythology.
Thankfuly to both Turkish and Foreign archaeologists, Ephesos is most popular ancient site in Turkey. It is possible to see different civilisations together over there. In fact Anatolia has numerous settlements like Ephesos but well protected and known sites are only a few. Vandalism and burglary damaged our national heritage seriously. After seeing that magnificent site, everybody hopes for success of future digs.
Fondest memory: Celsus Library is always my favourite place for photography. I had opportunity to see it only daytime. I would like to be there at night in the future...
Additionaly every year i saw a different and new Ephesos. Because works continue and wonders of past meet sunlight again.
The legend is telling that once there was a King who wanted to built a new city.
The Gods would show him where to built this city !
It was at a place where a fish left a burning water in the bushes.
The King found this place and builded EFEZE
Favorite thing: Here's the reason for the malfunctioning toilets! These ancient pipes have been neatly stacked along the path. You can still see the bonding agent that was used to join the different pieces.