The ancient city of Pergamon consists of three main parts: the Acropolis, the Red Courtyard and the Asklepion.
The temple of Athena (530 B.C.) situated on top of the city is surrounded by olive groves and encompassed by crumbling city walls and an ancient necropolis (cemetery). The temple entails six columns on the short side and thirteen columns on the long side outside the building. Nearby the temple stands the Ottoman Murad Hudavendigar mosque, a 14th century structure
The agora on the southern part of the Basilica is the State Agora and was built in the Roman Period in the first century BC. This agora was used not for commerce but for business, it played an important role as a meeting place for governmental discussions. During the excavations in the northeast corner of the Agora, a number of graves from the 7th-6th centuries BC along with a stone-paved road, and a archaic sarcophagus of terra cotta were found. From this it is understood that this part of the Agora was used as the necropolis of Ephesus. There is a water reservoir at the corner which played an important role in Ephesus. Its water was brought to the city through the Pollio Aqueduct, the remains of which can be seen 5km away along the Selcuk-Aydin highway.
The agora is 160x73 meters, with stoas on three sides and a temple in the centre, dating from the 1st century AD. The temple was dedicated to Isis, surrounded by ten columns on the long side and 6 on the short side. It collapsed during the reign of Augustus and was not rebuilt again, as Emperor Augustus disliked anything Egyptian. On the facade of the Temple, there were groups of statues describing the legend of Odysseus and Polyphemos which are now displayed in the Ephesus Museum in Selcuk.
There are 2 Agora (market place/place of assembly) in Ephesus. This Agora was built in the third century BC in the Hellenistic Period, but the ruins date from the reign of Caracalla (211-217 AD). It is in the form of a square, each side being 110 meters long, and surrounded completely by columns. It has 3 gates, one from the front of the theatre to the northeast, another one opening to the harbour on the west and the third one from the Celsius Library. The north side of the Agora is left open and the other three sides are surrounded by a portico in which there are rows of shops. At the centre of the Agora was a sundial and a water-clock.
Agora was built in the third century B.C in the Hellenistic Period.
It is in the form of a square, each side 110 meters, and surrounded by columns. The north side of the Agora is left open, and the other three sides are surrounded by a portico, in which there are rows of shops.
At the center of the Agora there was a sundial and a water-clock.
The Agora has 3 gates, one from the front of the theatre on the northeast, the other one opening to the harbor on the west and the third one from the Celsus Library.
The eastern and southern sides of the Agora were two-storied, the second storey of the eastern side being constructed in the form of an enclosed Doric stoa.
You can watch my 4 min 19 sec Video clip Ephesus Slide-show Part III with Antonio Vivaldi – Concerto for piccolo in C maj.
The square structure 160 meters long and 73 meters wide lying to the left of the Varius Baths is the State Agora.
This Agora is considered to be built during the Roman Period of Augustus and Claudius over the 2nd century B.C. The entire city's business other than commerce was conducted there.
You can see a great number of graves and a stone-paved road and archaic sarcophagus of terra cotta which were found there after exploratory excavations made in the northeast corner of the Agora.
Close to the state Agora stands a stone with an interesting carving.
The first photo shows god Hermes, naked, leaning on a roam. He wears his winged sandals and holds the caducea, his attribute.
The second photo shows the caducea of Hermès, full length. This is the oldest recorded carving of the caducea of Hermès.
The third photo shows both faces of the stone.
Note : Hermès holds here the true caducea, a stick with a pair of wings and two interlaced snakes. It is the attribute of trade.
It is most of the time mistaken with the Asclepios stick (Asclepios was the Greek god for medicine). It has no wings and only one snake coiled around. It is topped by a mirror, meaning carefulness. It is the attribute of medicine.
To day, the name caducea is used by health professionals (physicians, pharmacists, nurses, veterinarians, etc..). Some are represented with 2 snakes and a pair of wings. They are actually caducea but are a symbol of trade, wrongly (?) used by health professions. Other are represented with one snake and a mirror and fit as symbols of health care but should not be named caducea! You can check that easily by a picture search on Google.
The marble slab shown on the photo lay in the agora. It shows three identical lines, each of them made of twelve circles with a cross in the middle, which makes :
000000 x 000000
The whole drawing is framed by a line.
What is it, I have not found. Is it for a game ? Is it a kind of computer to make calculation easier ?
The first photo shows the basilica dedicated to Isis that lines the state agora. In the background, the bouleuterion (see next tip).
The second photo shows a part of the state agora, paged with marble slabs. The Basilica and the Bouleuterion (almost hidden) are in the background. The state Agora is a rectangle 130 m x 56 m. It was built in the Roman Period in the 1st century BC. On the state agora were held governement meetings.
The third photo shows a general view of the agora (foreground), basilica (middle) and Bouleuterion (background).
This is the largest and most important Agoras in the whole world, its 111 square meters and it was enclosed on 4 sides by double arched galaries and right in the middle was a hugh water clock or sundial, these items were found during the excavations in 1903. All along the galeries and squares of the agora were ornimental statues and busts of the people who served the city of Ephisus, people like Emperers, empresses, preconuls, conuls, senators, priests, rich men, poets, and athletes
The Basilica is situated in front of theOdeon and the Prytaneum. It is proved that this was the stock exchange of Ephisus. The Basilica was built in the 1st century A.D. by Augustus. A Stoa was found in this area and unearthed in the Stoa was the statues of Augustus and his wife Liva, they are now on display in the museum at Ephisus
spell is gone!
even in october.....imagine it in summertime!
i mean,of course,everybody has the right to visit as he wants....having regard for other people....
unfortunately,it's not:noisy and egoistic!
The broad area in front of the theatre was the Commercial Agora of Ephesus. ...Completely surrounded by columns, this Agora contained three entrances, one from the celsus library, one from the front of the theatre, and one from the harbour
The most magnificent of the three entrances to the Agora ... . The two prisoners originally were employed by Augustus and later by his son in law Agrippa. ... The second magnificent gate of the Agora was this one, located on the west, ...The front was richly decorated with Ionian columns, and the gate, which was somewhat high, was reached by a stairway.
An arch and a small pool is what remains of this fountain, close to the Agora. An inscription dates its construction in 97 A.D.