There have been 10 archeological excavations in Ephesus since 1863, here is a list of dates and archeologists who have excavated on this famous site
1863 -- John Turtle Wood began Excavations in the area of the Temple of Artemis
1869 -- The temple of Artemis was found
1874 -- John Turtle Wood compleated his work
1895 -- Professor Benndorf and Carl Humann excavated the temple of Zeus
1898 -- 1913 -- Excavation of the Austrian Archeological institute took place
1904 -- 1905 prof, D.O. Hogarth excavated the Artemission for the British museum
1919 -- 1922 The Basilica of St, John was excavated by Prof, B.G. Sotiriu
1926 -- Excavations of the Austrian Archeological institute were directed by Prof, Joseph Keil
1954 -- Excavations were started by Prof, Franz Miltner
1960 -- Prof, Fritz Eichter continued the excavations
Since 1926, Aziz Ogan, Sabahattin Kantar, Halil Orcan, musa Baran and Sabahhattin Turkoglu have all excavated on behalf of the Turkish goverment. It is a massive project to excavate Ephesus, in over 100 years only 20% has ever been excavated, that leaves a huge 80% left to do
Ephesus is the best-preserved classical city on the Mediterranean,and perhaps the best place in the world to get the feeling for what life was like in Roman times. As a strategic coastal gateway to the Eastern World, this Ionian refuge grew to be the second largest city in the Roman Empire, the site of a Christian shrine, and one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.
Library of Celsus - The library of Celsus is an ancient Roman building completed in 135 AD. The library was built to store 12,000 scrolls and to serve as a monumental tomb for Celsus. It is in very good condition.
Temple of Hadrian - It is one of the best preserved and most beautiful structures on Curetes Street. It was built before 138 A.D by P.Quintilius and was dedicated to the Emperor Hadrian, who came to visit the city from Athens in 128 A.D The facade of the temple has four Corinthian columns supporting a curved arch, in the middle of which contains a relief of Tyche, goddess of victory.
Nike - Stone carving of the goddess Nike
Theater - At an estimated 44,000 seating capacity, the Theater is believed to be the largest outdoor theater in the ancient world
What can anyone say about an ancient city which survived centuries of natural & manmade destructions?
Lots, I gather. History, history, history... I'm real bad in history :-( . What is then, what is now? Essentially, what is time?
A very peculiar thing happened while I was reading the guide to Ephesus. It was said that in the 6th century B.C., yep, that's 6th century B.C., if you can try to imagine that, I can't... my imagination where time is concerned is really limited :p, a philosopher by the name of Heracleitus lived in Ephesus & he believed that all things are transitory. Permanence & stability to him are mere illusion. Ok, that's a thought process from the 6th century B.C. Yet, when I recalled reading one of D. Chopra's book on science & atoms, he mentioned about our entire being being transformed totally in a very short span of time, ie. what I'm now is no longer what I was 10 years ago. I'm no biologist either, so, I shall not try to explain this.
Ok, now, my point is this... thought continues to live on, right? So, then, what are thoughts? This library will not give me the answer to that... instead, it shows me part of the revelation. Do you see it?
Located about 3km west of the town of Selcuk, Ephesus was, for many years, the second largest city of the Roman Empire; ranking behind Rome, the empire's capital. Ephesus had a population of more than 250,000 in the 1st century BC, which also made it the second largest city in the world.
It dates back to around 1000 BC when it was known as Apasas during the Hittite period and became a major sea port where migrants from Greece began to live. It then moved to the surroundings of the Temple of Artemis, just outside Selcuk, around 550 BC which was said to be the largest temple in the world, eclipsing even the Parthenon at Athens and making it the Seventh Wonder of the World. However, today’s Ephesus was established in 300 BC by Lysimakhos, one of the generals of Alexander the Great. Under the Romans, Ephesus became the Roman provincial capital of this part of Asia and it blossomed into what is left today - one of the best-preserved classical cities of the eastern Mediterranean. But the port silted up during Byzantine times and the people of Ephesus were forced to move to a new settlement further inland which is now modern day Selcuk.
The Romans left behind a legacy of fine buildings including the massive 24,000 capacity Theatre which is believed to be the largest outdoor theatre in the ancient world; and the Library of Celsus, which has become a symbol of the tourist industry. If you like ancient ruined city's then there's not many that are better in the world than Ephesus.
Open: 8am-5pm Oct-Apr, 8am-7pm May-Sep. Admission: TL20.
In Kusadasi.biz I read:
"In the Augustan era, the spread of Imperial-Roman cults was by then a fact in many provinces of Asia Minor. The cult of the Emperor was alive in Nicomedia and in Pergamum, together with that of the Goddess Rome.
The idea for the building of a temple which could celebrate the Goddess Rome, the Roman divinty by antonomasia, together with Julius Caesar, whose divine attributes were venerated, occurred to his adoptive son, Octavius. The later - who was become Emperor with the name of Augustus - authorized the construction of the sanctuary on the occasion of a visit made to the Asiatic province in 29 B.C.
Its erection in the vicinity of the Prytaneion, constituted an aggregation point for the Romans resident in the province and a unquestionable testimony to the important role played by Ephesus within the political and administrative organization of this important part of the Roman Empire.
The architectural conformations of the buildings, usual in Ancient Rome, was in fact very atypical for the territories of Greece and Asia Minor. The remains of theses temples have in our day been located in the immediate vicinity of Odeion."
Well, I believe, but we only saw some disperse stones.