Rooibos - Rooibos
It is an erect shrub with reddish brown stems and dark green needle like leaves with a small yellow flower. The leaves and twigs are used, after being cut and bruised to allow enzymatic oxidation and then dried. It is an aromatic, pleasant tasting and mildly astringent herb, that benefits the digestion and relaxes spasms, while giving some relief in allergic and skin conditions.
Health and Rooibos (Rooibos)
It contains no stimulants and has a low tannin content and is often given to babies with colic. It makes a good non-stimulant health drink. It forms the base of a range of health teas, since it improves the color and taste. It is used in some allergic skin conditions and is also used as a cosmetic ingredient.
Rose - Gül
All roses (gül) are deciduous scrubs with fragrant flowers ranging from white to deep red in color.
The flower petals are used. It is an astringent, toning and aromatic herb which helps to control bacterial infections and promotes healing.
Health and Rose (Gül)
Rose (gül) is used for colds, bronchial infections, diarrhea, depression and lethargy and for circulatory congestion and menstrual complaints. It is used for stimulating the liver, menstrual complaints, poor appetite and improving circulation.
Rose (gül) is used for sore throats, eye irritations, minor injuries and skin problems. The sugars contained have important skin hydration action and help to tone the skin. It furthermore has astringent properties which helps with reducing puffiness, edema and has a slight tightening effect.
The essential oil is extracted from Rosa damascena and has a very wide range of effects and uses. Damask rose (gül) oil soothes and harmonizes the mind and helps with depression, anger, grief, fear, nervous tension and stress and at the same time addresses sexuality, self-nurturing, self esteem and dealing with emotional problems.
It is most helpful for poor circulation and heart problems, which would include heart palpitations, arrhythmia, as well as high blood pressure and is also used to boost the liver and gall bladder.
For the respiratory system, Damask rose (gül) oil assists in cases of asthma, coughs and hay fever, and in the digestive system for liver congestion and nausea.
Rose (gül) oil has a clearing, cleansing, regulating and purifying effect on the female sex organs and can be used for regulating and balancing hormones, irregular menstruation, functional infertility, leucorrhoea, menorrhagia, uterine bleeding and other uterine disorders, while having a general toning effect on the uterus.
On the skin, it is most effective for moisturizing and hydrating the skin while having a general stimulant and antiseptic action which is good for all skin types, but especially so for dry, mature and irritated skin. It is used to repair broken capillaries, inflammation, as well as skin redness and is useful in eczema and herpes. Rose (gül) water can be used for conjunctivitis.
The therapeutic properties of damask rose (gül) oil are antidepressant, antiphlogistic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral, aphrodisiac, astringent, bactericidal, choleretic, cicatrisant, depurative, emmenagogue, haemostatic, hepatic, laxative, nervous system sedative, stomachic and a tonic for the heart, liver, stomach and uterus.
ROSE GERANIUM: ITIR/ROSE GERANIUM
Rose Geranium - Itýr
This is a strong growing shrub with jagged triangular leaves that has a distinct lemon-rose smell, with pale-pink flowers with purple spots. The leaves and oil are used. This aromatic herb has relaxant, anti-depressant, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic properties. It is also used to control bleeding.
Health and Rose Geranium (Itýr)
Rose geranium (ýtýr) is often used for premenstrual and menopausal problems, as well as nausea, tonsillitis and to improve circulation. The fresh leaves are brewed for tea and are added to fruit drinks, punches, jellies, desserts, creams, custards, candies, pastries and baked fruits.
Its antiseptic and anti-inflammatory properties are useful in treating bruising, acne, eczema, hemorrhoids as well as ringworm and lice.
The essential oil made from the rose geranium (ýtýr) plant oil has the same qualities as normal geranium oil and it can be said to have anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, anti-depressant and relaxant properties.
Rose geranium (ýtýr) essential oil is well tolerated by most individuals, but since it helps in balancing the hormonal system, care must be taken during pregnancy.
Rosehip - Kuºburnu
It is a deciduous scrub with pale to pink flowers followed by scarlet round to ovoid hips (the fruit). The ripe fruits (rose hips) are used and a superior oil is extracted from the Rosa rubiginosa fruit. The Rosa canina fruit (rose hips) have irritant hairs that must be removed before use. The ripe fruits are astringent and acidic and contain flavonoids, tannins, carotenoids and volatile oil.
Health and Rosehip (Kuºburnu)
The fruits of Rosa canina are used for colds, influenza, scurvy, gastritis and to control diarrhea, while the fruits from Rosa laevigata are used to treat urinary dysfunction, infertility, chronic diarrhea and to regulate kidney function.
The oil extracted from Rosa rubiginosa has excellent tissue regeneration properties and helps to reduce scars (trauma and surgical), as well as reducing wrinkles. Rosehip (kuºburnu) oil brings about skin regeneration and wound healing. It contains trans-retinoic acid, which is responsible for skin rejuvenation and quickens healing. It repairs skin subjected to excessive sunlight and resultant photo aging. The linoleic and linolenic acids in rosehip (kuºburnu) has also been shown to reduce pigmentation of the skin and when used regularly it has been shown to reduce fine lines and wrinkles.
Although rose hip oil is not strictly an essential or volatile oil, it is normally classified as an essential oil, as it is far more than just a vegetable carrier oil into which essential oils are normally mixed. Rosehip (kuºburnu) oil does not need to be diluted before use on the skin as most essential oils need to be, and has some very positive effects on the health of the skin. It has some great rejuvenating properties and is helpful with fighting sun damage to the skin. It helps the skin heal and regenerate, preventing the formation of ugly keloid scar tissue (thickening of the skin when forming scar tissue) and is helpful in healing burns, scars and stretch marks.
Rosemary - Biberiye
Rosemary (biberiye) is a hardy bushy perennial shrub with aromatic, evergreen leaves and pale-blue flowers around the stem. The leaves and flowers as well as the essential oil are used. Rosemary (biberiye) is a tonic, astringent, restorative herb that relaxes spasm and increases the rate of perspiration, while stimulating the liver and gall bladder. It improves digestion and circulation and controls pathogenic organisms.
It has antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, spasmolytic, antioxidant, smooth muscle modulating, analgesic, venotonic, as well as anti-inflammatory properties.
Health and Rosemary (Biberiye)
It is used with great success for dyspeptic complaints, flatulence and to stimulate appetite and the secretion of gastric juices. It is also used as supportive therapy for rheumatism and circulatory problems. In herbal preparations it can be included to ensure proper circulation to the ***. Furthermore it is used for headaches, as well as for nervous complaints.
Rosemary (biberiye) is used widely in Mediterranean cooking and the fresh or dried leaves are used to flavor meat (especially lamb and kid), sausages, stuffing, soups, stews and to make tea. The flowers can also be added to salads.
Externally, rosemary (biberiye) helps to increase circulation and is very often used in hair care products and lotions as it stimulates the hair follicles to renewed activity and prevent premature baldness. It has two important properties - it is an outstanding free radical scavenger and therefore has amazing antioxidant properties, and secondly has an remarkable stimulating effect on the skin.
Apart from this, it has good antiseptic properties and is traditionally used for hair and scalp stimulation, as well as anti-aging products. It has rubefacient properties and therefore is most useful when an increase of blood flow is required or when below-par circulation needs to be rectified. Rosemary (biberiye) is an effective treatment against scurf and dandruff. It can also be used in mouth rinses and gargles; and is applied topically to stimulate circulation. It has analgesic as well as antibacterial, antifungal and anti-parasitic properties.
This essential oil helps to clear the mind, sharpen the memory and boost the central nervous system. In the body it helps to clear respiratory congestion, including sinuses and relieving catarrh and asthma.
Its analgesic properties are useful for treating rheumatism, arthritis and sore stiff muscles.
Furthermore, it stimulates the liver and gall bladder and helps to lower high blood sugar.
On the skin, it has a tightening effect and reduces bloating and puffiness. In hair care, it stimulates hair growth and fights scalp problems. It has analgesic, antidepressant, astringent, carminative, cephalic, cholagogue, cordial, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue, hepatic, hypertensive, nervine, rubefacient, stimulant, sudorific and tonic properties.
Rosemary (biberiye) essential oil has a highly stimulating action and may not be suitable for people with epilepsy or high blood pressure. The essential oil should also not be used during pregnancy.
ROSEWOOD: GUL AGACI/ROSEWOOD
Rosewood- Gül Aðacý
It is an aromatic, evergreen tree with leathery leaves and trivial, dull red flowers. The essential oil is extracted from the wood. The plant is used for its volatile oil.
Health and Rosewood (Gül aðacý)
Rosewood (gül aðacý) is mostly used in aromatherapy and not really as a herb as such.When over-burdened with problems, rosewood (gül aðacý) will enliven the spirit and mind, while at the same time helping to relieve headaches. It has good antibacterial properties and boosts the immune system, while others claim that it increases libido and fights impotence.
On the skin, it acts as a cell stimulant and tissue rejuvenator, making it ideal for mature skin, but it is also well suited for dry, sensitive and inflamed skin. It has analgesic, anti-depressant, antiseptic, aphrodisiac, bactericide, cephalic, deodorant, insecticide, stimulant and tonic properties.
SAGE: ADA CAYI/SAGE
Sage - Adaçayý
Sage (adaçayý) is a shrubby, evergreen perennial shrub with pale green leaves. Flowers are borne in summer. The leaves and essential oil are used. Sage (adaçayý) is an astringent, antiseptic, tonic herb, with a camphor-like aroma. Sage (adaçayý) relaxes spasms, suppresses perspiration and lactation, improves liver function and digestion and has anti-inflammatory, anti-depressant and estrogenic effects.
Health and Sage (Adaçayý)
Sage (adaçayý) is used internally to treat indigestion and flatulence. It is also used to reduce excessive lactation in nursing mothers and night sweats (especially in menopause), excessive salivation, profuse perspiration, anxiety, depression, female sterility and menopausal problems. It also has supportive properties for the liver and is used to boost the functionality of the liver.
Externally, it can be used for insect bites, throat, mouth, gum and skin infections, as well as vaginal discharge. It contains rosmarinic acid that has good antioxidant properties, which are reinforced by the picrosalvin also found in sage (adaçayý).
Furthermore it has antimicrobial and antiviral effects and is often used in hair care to combat greasy and oily hair by regulating the sebum production of the scalp. It is used to treat various skin problems, such as acne.
Using small amounts, it lightens a tired mind and fights depression and grief. It must be used with great care, since high amounts can cause problems. It is useful to the digestive system, increasing appetitive, balancing the female hormone estrogen and easing dull aches and pains.
Very useful for regulating the menstrual cycle, as well as reducing night sweats during menopause.
On the skin, it is useful to refine the texture, for wound healing, as well as to clear up sores, ulcers and dermatitis.
It has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue, febrifuge, Hypertensive, laxative, stomachic and tonic properties.
The herb should not be used at high dosage or for long periods, as toxicity can occur. It should not be used by pregnant women. The essential oil of sage (adaçayý) contains high amounts of thujone, which can work as an abortifacient and is therefore best avoided in pregnancy.
People suffering from epilepsy and high blood pressure should also not use this oil.
SANDALWOOD: SANDAL AGACI/SANDALWOOD
Sandalwood - Sandalaðacý
It is a small, graceful shrub/tree with part parasitic feeding habits with yellow to maroon flowers. It has fragrant wood. The heartwood is used, as well as the essential oil extracted from it. It is considered a cooling and calming aromatic herb, with astringent, antispasmodic, digestive, diuretic, analgesic and antiseptic properties.
Health and Sandalwood (Sandalaðacý)
Internally, sandalwood (sandalaðacý) can be used for disorders of the genital and urinary tract, stomach and digestive problems, as well as for fever and sunstroke. It is also used to treat dizziness as well as general chest complaints. In traditional medicine it is used for infections of the lower urinary tract, including cystitis and gonorrhea. Sandalwood (sandalaðacý) is most useful in skin disorders.
It is wonderfully relaxing, reducing confusion and balancing the mind. In the body it acts on the genito-urinary tract and eases chronic infections. It helps to clear up catarrh, as well as a dry cough and boosts the digestive system, especially helpful in diarrhea. On the skin, sandalwood (sandalaðacý) essential oil helps to moisturize and hydrate ageing, dry or flaky skin, relieving itching and inflammation and its astringent action balances oily skin conditions. It has antiphlogistic, antiseptic, anti-spasmodic, carminative, astringent, diuretic, emollient, expectorant, sedative and tonic properties.
Take note that sandalwood (sandalaðacý) essential oil has a very persistent fragrance and should be used sparingly for that reason.
Senna (sinameki) is a shrubby herb with feathery, lance-like leaflets with yellow to tawny-yellow flowers, followed by straight pods. The leaves, as well as the pods are used. This tea-like smelling herb has stimulant and irritating laxative properties, as well as cooling and anti-bacterial properties.
Health and Senna (Sinameki)
It is used to treat acute constipation and is useful after rectal surgery, or with very painful hemorrhoids, as it ensures soft stools and easy bowel movements.
The leaves may cause contact dermatitis and the internal use is contra-indicated in pregnancy, colitis, as well as spastic constipation. It should also not be used for chronic constipation.
The excessive and continuous use of senna (sinameki) can cause laxative dependency and may also cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and may also lead to inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract.
Soy - Soya
Soybeans are harvested from this erect bushy annual with small white or mauve flowers, followed by dark to nearly black pods, containing the seeds. The seeds and oil are used.
Soybean is a sweet, cooling and slightly bitter herb used in Chinese medicine for a variety of ailments. It has sedative, anti-spasmodic, diaphoretic (causes sweating) and anti-pyretic properties, with hormonal balancing effects and has great benefit to the liver and circulation.
Health and Soy (Soya)
Soybean is used internally in Chinese medicine for fever, headache, insomnia, restlessness, and chest discomfort associated with colds and measles. Some studies also indicate that it can be useful in the treatment of menopause and post-menopausal conditions, cancer, hypertension, aging, and benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Soy (soya) lecithin lowers serum cholesterol levels, and the soy (soya) phospholipids are useful in combating chronic liver disease as well as chronic hepatitis. Unripe soybeans are cooked and can be eaten like peas, while the dried beans can be cooked in soups, stews and casseroles, roasted as a coffee substitute, liquefied with water to make soy (soya) milk, tofu (bean curd), sprouted for salads, or ground and fermented to make soy (soya) sauce and other sauces and pastes.
The oil expressed from the seeds has a multitude of benefits for the skin. Soybean oil is 61% polyunsaturated fat and 24% monounsaturated fat. Soybean oil is also rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, including the two essential fatty acids, linoleic and linolenic, that are not produced in the body. The oil has a regenerative effect on the cutaneous tissues due to the presence of unsaturated fatty acids, and therefore enhances local circulation in the area treated to bring about revitalization of the dermis.
The combined properties of soybean oil makes it a valued emollient for cosmetic use.
Not only is it a superb moisturizer, but its intrinsic phytoestrogen content is valuable in promoting good skin care. The protease inhibitor effect that it also has can play a role in fighting unwanted changes in the cell, which gives the oil anti-tumor properties.
The oil contains a high proportion of phytosterols. These components have been attributed with the improvement of certain disorders of the conjunctive tissue and cutaneous injuries, because they cause an increase in the collagen biosynthesis of the fibroblasts and enhance the reduction of reticular collagen. Phytosterols contained in the oil may therefore be used in specific treatments for aged skin, thanks to their revitalizing and emollient properties.
Their incorporation is also advisable in sun screen products due to their anti-oxidizing and anti-inflammatory action, in attenuating erythemas and peeling at the same time. The antioxidant effect of the oil also plays a role in preventing premature aging.
The presence of sugars and amino acids cooperate in moisturizing the moisture of the horny layer of the skin and give it back the elasticity and flexibility that are characteristic of normal skin.
The oil is extracted from the beans and is a good source of vitamin E as well as lecithin and unsaturated fatty acids. It can used as a massage carrier oil in aromatherapy.
Excessive intake of soy (soya) phospholipids may cause loose stools and minor diarrhea.
Thyme - Kekik
Thyme (kekik) is a variable shrub with white to purple flowers. Some plants have variegated leaves and grow to about 25 cm in height. The leaves, flowering tops and essential oil are used. It is a warming herb that is astringent, aromatic, anti-septic, and anti-fungal. It helps to improve digestion, relax spasms and controls coughing.
Health and Thyme (Kekik)
The herb is used internally for respiratory problems and is successful in treating dry and whooping cough, bronchitis, excess bronchial mucus, asthma and laryngitis. It can also be used for indigestion, gastritis, and diarrhea.
Thyme (kekik) can be used externally for tonsillitis, gum disease, rheumatism, arthritis and fungal infections. It is often used to invigorate and stimulate hair growth. It is used as a tonic for hair and to help treat dandruff and hair loss.
This essential oil will bolster the nerves and help with concentration. Thyme (kekik) essential oil will boost the immune system and help fight colds, flu, coughs and sore throat, including laryngitis, bronchitis, tonsillitis and asthma.
Since it helps remove uric acid, it is good to use in gout, arthritis and rheumatism, while further stimulating the digestion and urinary tract. Thyme (kekik) essential oil is not really used in skin care, but is sometimes used to treat dandruff and hair-loss.
It has anti-rheumatic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, bactericide, cardiac, carminative, cicatrisant, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, hypertensive, insecticide, stimulant, tonic and vermifuge properties.
The fresh herb should not be used in pregnancy. The essential oil must be used in low concentrations and can easily irritate the skin and mucus membranes - so do not use in a bath. Not to be used when suffering from high blood pressure.
Turmeric - Zerdeçal
This is a perennial herb with a large rhizome and large leaves with yellow flowers and is a close relative to the ginger plant. The rhizomes are used. It is a bitter herb with a pungent smell with astringent, anti-biotic, anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant properties. It is used to stimulate the uterus, digestive, respiratory and circulatory systems, normalizes energy flow and lowers cholesterol levels.
It has anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties.
Health and Turmeric (Zerdeçal)
This herb can be used internally to assist with digestive problems and skin complaints, circulatory disorders as well as tumors in the uterus and menstrual problems. It is also indicated to help with painful menstruation. Furthermore it is used to treat liver disease and jaundice, as well as colon cancer. Also used as an anti-inflammatory for asthma and eczema, and to reduce the risk of stroke and heart attacks.
It has good antioxidant and anti-cancer properties, protecting DNA, and also helps to protect against cigarette smoke condensation, which could be valuable to smokers. This herb is also widely used in cooking since it imparts a bright yellow color and is an essential ingredient of curry. It is used externally for injuries and minor wound management, sores, ringworm, as well as athletes' foot.
VALERIAN: KEDI OTU /VALERIAN
Valerian - Kediotu
It is a perennial herb with short rhizomes and aromatic, feathery leaves, with small pink or white flowers. The rhizomes, roots, and essential oil are used, but it is mostly the dried root that is used for internal applications. Valerian (kediotu) is a warming and sedative herb with bitter principles and is used to calm the nerves, help with pain relief, stimulate the appetite, lower blood pressure, relax spasms and improve digestion.
Health and Valerian (Kediotu)
Valerian (kediotu) is used internally for restlessness and anxiety, insomnia and to promote sleep naturally, muscular cramps, tension and spasm, migraine, indigestion of nervous origin, hypertension and painful menstruation.
It is useful to treat premenstrual syndrome, as well as irritation and anxiety in menopause. It is a popular ingredient of relaxant herb tea blends as it offers a non-addictive alternative to synthetic tranquilizers.
Externally it can be used for skin complaints, such as ulcers, eczema and minor sores and wounds.
The internal use of valerian (kediotu) can cause drowsiness and should not be used in conjunction with other sedative drugs or anti-depressants. The safety during pregnancy has not been clearly established. When used internally it increase the effect of other sedative drugs.
WATERCRESS: SU TERESI/WATERCRESS
Watercress - Su Teresi
This water-loving herb contains a volatile mustard oil and has pungent tasting leaves. Tiny white flowers are produced. The leaves and shoots are used. It is a pungent bitter herb, which helps to remove toxins, boosts digestion and has both diuretic and expectorant properties.
Health and Watercress (Su teresi)
It is used to reduce water retention, for wet coughs, bronchitis, skin eruptions, anemia, gall bladder complaints, as well as rheumatism. In very alternative health it is used to fight cancers brought on by cigarette smoking - such as lung, throat and mouth cancer, and although clinical trials may not have been done to validate this use, it may be an alternative to consider, as there are no side effects. This herb is great to add to salads or to sandwiches.
Watercress (su teresi) is sometimes used as a solution for ulcers and in dental fluxions. The raw leaves are excellent strengtheners of the gums and relievers of toothache. The juice of the plant is used in dermatitis and acne.
Watercress (su teresi) extract has invigorating and epithelisant properties and may be used in products for greasy skin. It also has great regulatory power over cutaneous moisture and so is incorporated in products for the bath as well as facial preparations. Apart from this, it is a great strengthener of the skin and is used in hair treatments to prevent hair loss.
Eating or using watercress (su teresi) from the wild is not recommended, due to uncontrolled pollution and the pathogenic organisms found in nature these days. The volatile element in the fresh herbs may irritate the eyes and mucus membranes if touched after handling the plant.
Willow - Söðüt
This large tree with its deeply fissured bark and hanging branches are a well-known site in river and wetland areas. The bark is normally used, although the leaves can also be used. It is a bitter, astringent herb with cooling properties, which relieves pain, lowers fever and reduces inflammation.
Health and Willow (Söðüt)
The bark and leaves are very effective to break and bring down minor fevers and colic. The bark is most helpful to treat rheumatism, arthritis and gout, as well as diarrhea and dysentery, headache and neuralgia. The pain relieving action as analgesic is due to the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis by the salicin derivatives, which cause sensitization of peripheral pain receptors, and "natural aspirin" from the willow (söðüt) bark seems to have far less side effects than the synthetic aspirin made by pharmaceutical companies.
Willow (söðüt) bark extract has shown excellent results when dealing with acne and problem skin. This also works as a beta-hydroxy acid, and is included in various cosmetic products for this purpose.
No parts of the willow (söðüt) should be used by people who are sensitive to aspirin although the natural aspirin contained in willow (söðüt) is deemed to be less irritating than synthetic aspirin.
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