Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park Things to Do

  • Hans Heg's memorial - Ditch and Wilder beyond
    Hans Heg's memorial - Ditch and Wilder...
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  • Indiana Light, 18th Battery/Lily's and the Ditch
    Indiana Light, 18th Battery/Lily's and...
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  • Carlin's 21st Illinois fore of Bradley's 42nd IL
    Carlin's 21st Illinois fore of Bradley's...
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Most Recent Things to Do in Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park

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    BATTLELINE ROAD/MORTUARY MONUMENTS

    by mtncorg Updated Jul 20, 2014

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    Four monuments to brigade commanders are found just off the lines along Battlefield Road – three Confederate and one Union. In the woods to the east of the north end of the road are monuments to Brigadier General Benjamin Helm – brother-in-law of Abraham Lincoln – who died in the initial attacks against the Union left on 20 September leading his mostly Kentucky brigade – 498 men lost out of 1384 – and to Colonel Peyton Colquitt who died leading a subsequent attack of Georgian and South Carolinians with similarly unsuccessful results – losses of 336 out of 1400. Into the woods from the Texas Monument, you will find a memorial to Brigadier General James Deshler who died leading his mostly Texas brigade – losses 447 out of 1693. Across the road, next to the edge of Kelly Field is a monument to Colonel Edward King whose brigade made up the right end of Thomas’ positions here on Battleline Road. He was killed here in the afternoon by a sharpshooter. He was in the act of dismounting from a horse at the request of his troops who thought he was too much a target while he was mounted.

    Monument to Brig Gen Benjamin Helm CSA Colonel Peyton Colquit CSA remembered Monument to Colonel Edward King USA Brig Gen James Deshler CSA monument
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    BATTLELINE ROAD/CRUFT’S BRIGADE

    by mtncorg Updated Jul 20, 2014

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    1st BRIGADE 2nd DIV (Palmer) 21 CORPS (Crittenden)

    During the morning of 19 September, troops of Brannan’s and Baird’s divisions had been trading blows with those of Forrest and Liddell. Around noon, Cheatam’s large – mostly Tennessean - division of 7000 men began to be fed into the fray in a piecemeal fashion. The Federals countered with Johnson’s division on the left – attacking through the woods between Winfrey and Brock Fields – and Palmer’s division on the right – attacking through Brock Field. Cruft’s brigade held the line along the west side of Brock Field and into the woods beyond. They helped to successfully stymie Rebel attacks in this area. Throughout the day, the brigade maintained its position here, shifting back to the new Union line along what is now Battlefield Road that night – taking up the right of Palmer’s new position. During the morning of 20 September, the men – firing from behind hastily erected log breastworks – easily turned back attacks from men from both Polk’s and Wood’s brigades of Cleburne’s division. In the late afternoon withdrawal, the men were withdrawn across Kelly Field one regiment at a time in order to not give too big a target to Rebel artillery which was in place about where the Georgia Monument is today located on the south end of Poe Field.

    Here along Battleline Road you will find the monuments to two of Cruft’s four regiments: the 90th Ohio and the 31st Indiana. His other two regiments – the 1st and 2nd Kentucky – are remembered with all other units (North and South) on the Kentucky Monument found at the intersection of Lafayette and Alexander’s Bridge Road north of here.

    1280 men present/290 casualties

    Regimental monument of the 90th Ohio 31st Indiana Regiment monument
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    BATTLELINE ROAD/KING’S REGULAR BRIGADE

    by mtncorg Updated Jul 20, 2014

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    3RD BRIGADE 1ST DIVISION (Baird) 14 CORPS (Thomas)

    This brigade was comprised not of State volunteers – which made up the bulk of both armies – but of men who had enlisted in the regular Federal army directly – the regular army had also been enlarged since the beginning of the war. The men of this brigade considered themselves elite, though these thoughts were certainly not share by their comrades in the volunteer brigades. King’s Regular’s helped rout both the brigades of Wilson and Ector in the woods north of Winfrey Field around 10AM on 19 September. The ensuing flank attack by Walthall’s brigade from the south overran the Regulars from behind and the 1400 man brigade lost about 500 men in just a few minutes – Walthall’s men would, in turn, be routed by men from Connell’s and Van Derveer’s brigades. The survivors of the first day were placed on the end of the Federal left – Doge’s brigade would later shift out beyond them. They were involved in stopping the initial Rebel attacks on the Federal left on the morning of 20 September – Helm’s brigade – and then helped shred Stovall’s brigade which advancing from the north after having just routed one Federal brigade – Grose’s – was trying to get behind the Federal left. Late on the 20th as the Federal left withdrew from the lines they had held throughout the day, the disorder of the withdrawal in the face of renewed Confederate attacks threatened to overwhelm the Regulars once again, but darkness allowed most of them to escape.

    Here on Battleline Road are the monuments to the 15th US 1st Battalion, 16th US 1st Battalion, the 18th US 1st and 2nd Battalions and the 19th US 1st Battalion.

    1375 men present/795 casualties

    Monument to the 1st Battalion 15th U.S. Regulars 1st and 2nd Battalions of the 18th U.S. Regulars 1st Battalion of the 19th U.S. Regulars 1st Battalion of the 16th U.S. Regulars
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    BATTLELINE ROAD/STARKWEATHER’S BRIGADE

    by mtncorg Updated Jul 20, 2014

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    2ND BRIGADE 1ST DIVISION (Baird) 14 CORPS (Thomas)

    Led by a 33 year old Wisconsin attorney, Brigadier General John Starkweather, the men of this brigade were caught in the same flank attack that rolled up Scribner’s men – here it was men of Govan’s brigade/Liddell’s division. They recovered after losing some 250 men and were pushed around again in the night attack of Cleburne. Pulled back to the new line to the right of Scribner, the men held of rebel attacks from both Polk’s and Walthall’s brigades during the morning of the 20th. During the withdrawal late in the afternoon, the brigade became totally disorganized as it came out of the line under renewed Confederate assaults.

    Here on Battleline Road the regiments placed their monuments: the 1st and 21st Wisconsin, the 79th Pennsylvania and the 24th Illinois.

    1512 men present/577 casualties

    1st Wisconsin Regiment remembered Monument to the 79th Pennsylvania Regiment Monument of the 24th Illinois Regiment The 21st Wisconsin Regiment monument
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    HORSESHOE RIDGE: WHITAKER’S BRIGADE

    by mtncorg Updated Jul 20, 2014

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    1ST BRIGADE 1ST DIV (Steedman) RESERVE CORPS (Granger)

    With the collapse of the Union center at midday of 20 September, some of the survivors and reserves rallied to form a new line atop Horseshoe Ridge next to the Snodgrass Cabin. This initial Federal line held off attacks by both of the brigades of Kershaw and Humphreys. Longstreet next ordered the division of Bushrod Johnson to outflank the new Union line to the west. Just in the nick of time for the Federals, the reserve division of Brigadier General James Steedman arrived – directed south by their corps commander Major General Gordon Granger. They had been several miles to the north in the early morning. With the sound of battle clearly audible, Granger marched two of his three brigades towards the sound of the guns. They reported to Snodgrass Field directly where Thomas sent them to the threatened Union right at about 2PM. Brigadier General Walter Whitaker’s men went in first to the right of the 21st Ohio. With Mitchell’s brigade on their right, they pushed the Tennessean brigades of Fulton and Sugg off to the south from the hill crest. The fighting was fierce from the start – Whitaker, himself, was wounded. Division commander Steedman was all over the place and an aide was afraid he was not going to last the day, asking Steedman if he had any last words, “Just make sure they spell my name right!” was the reply.

    Johnson’s men tried again between 3 and 3:30PM with similar results to their first unsuccessful attack – Hindman’s division was assaulting Mitchell’s brigade further to the right at the same time. At 5PM, Johnson renewed his attacks. Federal regiments were intermingled by this point and out of ammunition – most of the ammunition trains had fled the battlefield after the initial midday breakthrough. They withdrew to the north off the crest and Thomas shortly after ordered a general retreat towards Chattanooga around 6PM.

    Here are the monuments to the 115th Illinois, 84th Indiana, 22nd Michigan and the 40th and 89th Ohio regiments.

    2695 men present /1326 casualties

    89th Ohio Regiment - Horsehoe Hill Monuments of the 22nd Michigan and 84th Indiana Monuments of the 115th Illinois and 84th Indiana 40th Ohio Regiment on Horseshoe Ridge 96th Illinois Regiment far Union right
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    HORSESHOE RIDGE: MITCHELL’S BRIGADE

    by mtncorg Updated Jul 20, 2014

    2ND BRIGADE 2ND DIV (Steedman) RESERVE CORPS (Granger)

    Colonel John Mitchell’s brigade followed Whitaker’s to the west side of Horseshoe Ridge, falling in on the far Union right. They helped push Johnson’s initial attack off the hill crest around 2:15PM. Johnson’s division attacked again around 3PM in concert with Hindman’s Alabamian division. With artillery fire from short range, the Rebel attack was just barely held in check – the 96th Illinois was borrowed from Whitaker’s brigade to help further extend the Union right in response to the Confederate numbers. As with Whitaker’s brigade, Mitchell’s men ran out of ammunition in the face of renewed Confederate attacks around 5PM. Mitchell’s men withdrew to the north and the 96th Illinois drew off to the northeast to try and find their other regiments of their brigade.

    Here are the monuments of the 78th Illinois, 98th, 121st and 113th Ohio with the 96th Illinois being hidden in the woods some yards away along a bridal trail taking off to the northwest.

    1124 men present/461 casualties

    Monument of the 98th Ohio Regiment 121st Ohio Regiment memorialized 78th Illinois Regimental monument 113th Ohio Regiment is remembered
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    BROTHERTON ROAD: BRIGADIER BUSHROD JOHNSON CSA

    by mtncorg Updated Jul 20, 2014

    Chickamauga was said to be a “Soldier’s Battle”. Monuments to individual generals were not erected, but here is the exception. Bushrod Johnson is remembered by historian Peter Cozzens. “Some men are born losers; others become losers through the choices they make. Brigadier General Bushrod Johnson was both.” Originally born and raised in an Ohio Quaker family, Johnson attended West Point over family objections graduating in 1840 along with William T. Sherman and George Thomas. He was forced to resign when he made some bad choices during the Mexican War – trying to sell off government materials. He stayed in the South becoming the Literary Department chairman at the University of Nashville in 1855. With the outbreak of the war, he offered his services to the Confederacy. By the time of Chickamauga, Johnson was elevated to command a new division made up of his Tennessee brigade (Fulton), two Mississippi brigades (Gregg, McNair) and Robertson’s Texas brigade.

    Johnson’s division was involved in the battle from 18 September – day most historians consider the prelude to the battle – through 19 and 20 September. Sweeping down from Reed Bridge on 18 September, Johnson’s division formed up the left side of Hood’s corps. Attacks by his brigades were responsible for blunting the Federal right around Viniard Field and blasting open the Union center around Brotherton Field. Only through timely reinforcements were the Federals able to rally on 19 September. Johnson’s men finally withdrew to the woods from which they had started.

    On September 20, Johnson’s division formed the first line of Longstreet’s massive grand column – eight brigades aligned at the spot vacated by Brigadier Thomas Wood at 11:15AM, overwhelming the few Federal units that were trying to fill the gap. The Rebels quickly flanked and routed the men of Brigadier General John Brannan’s division to the north of Brotherton Field as well as the division of Brigadier General Jefferson Davis who were thrown in on the south side of Brotherton Field at the last moment – 1200 men against 6000. By noon, Johnson’s division swept through a stopgap Federal line of artillery batteries set up on a hill along the west side of Dyer Field and at the same time forced the Union commander Major General William Rosecrans off the battlefield as well. One of Johnson’s three brigades – McNair’s – withdrew after this action due to command confusion and lack of ammunition, but with the remaining two brigades – Fulton and Sugg (Gregg had been wounded in the fighting on 19 September); Robertson’s Texans had been loaned over to Law’s division on 19 September – plus the large Mississippi brigade of Brigadier General Patton Anderson – on loan from Hindman’s division – Johnson began a series of attacks on the new Union right atop Horseshoe Ridge at about 2PM. The arrival of the federal troops of James Steedman disrupted the initial assaults of Johnson’s men forcing them back. Along with other brigades of Hindman’s division – Anderson’s brigade was out of action by now – Johnson tried again between 3 and 3:30PM, fighting up through the difficult wooded slopes of Horseshoe Ridge only to be thrown back once again. McNair’s men – now commanded by Colonel David Coleman since McNair had been wounded in Dyer Field – finally rejoined Johnson’s other brigades in time for a last attack in the dimming light around 5PM. This time, Johnson’s men gained the crest of the hill as the Federals were forced to withdraw due to lack of ammunition. Dead tired, Johnson’s men were content to let them go.

    Johnson would go on to provide leadership for the South up until Appomattox where he would be relieved of command by R.E. Lee along with Pickett and others for their part in the Rebel defeat at the Battle of Five Forks. Two days later, he surrendered along with the rest of Lee’s army without a command. Following the war, here turned to teaching in Memphis and later retired in poverty on a small farm in Illinois until his death in 1880.

    The monument came about in 1977 as a result of efforts of Nobel Wyatt – an amateur Civil War historian from Charlestown, West Virginia - and others.

    Monument to Bushrod Johnson, Southern Quaker
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    VINIARD FIELD: HEG’S BRIGADE

    by mtncorg Updated Jul 20, 2014

    3RD BRIGADE - 1ST DIV (Davis)/20TH CORPS (McCook)

    Around 2:00 PM 19 September, the division of Jefferson C. Davis was ordered into the trees north of Viniard Field. Union commander William Rosecrans hoped they would be able to link with the men of Van Cleve’s division fighting east of Brotherton Field but Davis’ men were too few to cover such a distance – 0.75 miles. The men of Colonel Hans Heg’s brigade were at the tip of Davis’ arrow.

    Heg was a Norwegian by birth. At the war’s start, he had been instrumental in raising the 15th Wisconsin – the Scandinavian Regiment, comprised mostly of Norwegians with a smattering of Danes and Swedes for good measure. He had commanded the 15th as recently as the Battle of Stones River – 31 Dec 1862-2 Jan 1863 – before being elevated to brigade command – 1 May 1863. Heg’s men drove into the woods and pushed back the Rebel skirmish line finding the main Confederate line by 2:45. Heg’s men were outnumbered 2:1. Slow, but sure Heg’s men – supported on the south now by Carlin’s brigade – folded back to the west and Lafayette Road. McNair and part of Gregg’s brigades were able to plunge around the north flank of Heg’s troops – 35th Illinois – where there was no Federals to be found – 3:45 PM. Timely reinforcements from Thomas Wood’s division – Harker’s Brigade – coming onto the scene from the south plus men from Wilder’s reserve brigade set up on the west edge of Viniard Field were enough to stave off the initial breakthrough – 4 PM. But as Harker moved further north, Heg no longer had support behind him and his men were at their end collapsing a little later in the face of new attacks from a fresh Confederate division – Law’s Division/Robertson’s brigade. Heg – 33 years old – was mortally wounded trying to rally his troops and command fell to Colonel John Martin of the 8th Kansas – Martin would later become the 10th governor of Kansas in 1885.

    Heavily mauled after the first day of battle, Davis’ division was to suffer more the second day. Along with the survivors of Carlin’s brigade, Martin’s men were ordered into the main line at 11:30 to try and replace the three large brigades of Wood’s division which had been ordered north. Fewer than 1,200 men were faced by over 6,000 – Hindman’s division. With both flanks turned, the division came apart in short order. The survivors followed Sheridan off the field when his division came apart around 12:30.

    The regimental monuments of Heg’s brigade are found on the east side of Lafayette Road north of the intersection with the Viniard-Alexander Road: monuments to the 35th Illinois, the 8th Kansas, 15th Wisconsin and the 25th Illinois.

    1281 men present/696 casualties

    15th Wisconsin monument - Heg's original regiment Monument of the 5th Kansas Regiment Actions of the 5th Kansas Regiment inscribed 35th Illinois Regiment monument 25th Illinois Regiment in woods north of Viniard
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    VINIARD FIELD/WILDER’S BRIGADE

    by mtncorg Updated Jul 20, 2014

    1ST BRIGADE - 4 DIV (Reynolds)/14TH CORPS (Thomas)

    The brigade of Colonel James T. Wilder was detached from the divisional command of Joseph Reynolds during the days of Chickamauga. The men were able to impact events all over the battlefield and the brigade’s stories are among the more colorful to tell.

    Wilder led a varied life before the Civil War, continuing that trend throughout and after the War. Wilder had been an inventor before he donned the Blue – as was his army commander, William Rosecrans – and was open to innovation and searching out new ways to better serve as a soldier. Frustrated earlier in the war when the infantry regiment he led – 17th Indiana – was sent out to fight Confederate cavalry. Wilder reinvented the “dragoon” – mounted infantry – when he had his men mount up on mules and horses, thereby vastly increasing the range over which they could operate. Original dragoon units – there had been two in the pre-war US Army – had evolved into cavalry units instead of mounted infantry. Wilder’s men would ride – the Lightning Brigade – to where they were needed, dismount and then fight as normal infantrymen. Instead of sabers, the men carried long-handled hatchets – the Hatchet Brigade – but the other difference that made this brigade truly elite was their use of the seven-shot Spencer repeating rifle. This gave Wilder’s men a large advantage in firepower over adversaries. Other cavalrymen carried carbines which while were capable of multiple fire, they were shorter and not capable of the accuracy of the Spencer.

    On 18 September, Wilder’s men had been given the task of defending the Alexander Bridge over the Chickamauga Creek. Colonel Robert Minty’s cavalry brigade was likewise working further north covering the Reed Bridge. Like Minty, Wilder was able to delay the Rebels from crossing the creek in numbers for most of the day – 10 am until 5 pm – thus thwarting Bragg’s plan of cutting the Union army off from Chattanooga by placing his troops across the Lafayette Road. Late in the day, as Bragg’s army began to mass in truly large numbers, both Minty and Wilder withdrew their men to a position just east of Viniard Field where they stopped Rebel penetration for the day.

    Until early afternoon on 19 September, Wilder’s men skirmished from the Viniard Field occasionally with nearby Confederate units hidden in the woods to the east – men from Trigg’s brigade. About 2 pm, Davis’ division formed up along Lafayette Road next to the fields and Wilder’s men moved to a tree line on the west edge of Viniard Field to the west of the road forming a reserve backstop for the Federal infantry now attacking out in front of them.

    Several times in the late afternoon action, Wilder would use his regiments to stop Rebel breakthroughs and steady routed Federal brigades in his front: 4 pm – the 98th Illinois and 17th Indiana caught two advancing regiments of McNair’s brigade on their left flank and with Harker’s brigade moving north up Lafayette Road, the Confederates were forced to withdraw to the east as quickly as they had come; 4:10 pm – Wilder’s two right flank regiments – 123rd Indiana and 72nd Indiana – advanced through the chaos created when Barnes’ brigade (and Buell’s, in turn) were caught in the flank by the 6th Florida of Trigg’s brigade, restoring order; 4:30 pm – Robertson’s brigade routed the Federals on the east side of Lafayette Road and coming in to relieve them, Benning’s Georgians crossed the road moving into the ditch that ran through the middle of the field on the west side. Wilder’s men firing from the west edge of the field – backstopped by survivors of Jefferson Davis’ division – pinned the Georgians down while Lilly’s battery moved out and fired canister of shot down the length of the ditch forcing Benning’s men to retreat or die.

    It is here, on the west edge of the field where the monuments of the 17th Indiana and 72nd Indiana are located. The 92nd Illinois monument is in the south end of Brotherton Field where they fought detached that afternoon. The 123rd Illinois monument is in the woods east of Viniard Field where the brigade made its stand late on 18 September. The 98th Illinois is one of the few Federal regiments without a monument placed on the battlefield in memory though a unit marker does note their place here on the west edge of Viniard Field.

    Actions of the brigade on 20 September are noted under the “Wilder’s Tower” note.

    2283 men present/125 casualties

    72nd Indiana Regiment on west edge of Viniard's 17th Indiana Regiment on west edge Looking east from Wilder's position - Ditch across Monument of the 72nd Indiana Regiment 6th Ohio Battery helped Wilder's men at Viniard's
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    SOUTH CAROLINA MONUMENT

    by mtncorg Written Sep 8, 2013

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    South Carolinians fought here in Brigadier General Joseph Kershaw’s brigade. Over 1500 survivors of Gettysburg marched with the brigade at Chickamauga. The men showed up early on 20 September marching with Humphrey’s brigade – the two divisions made up McLaw’s division though commanded by Kershaw (McLaw and his two other brigades did not make it to the battlefield that day). Together, they made up a fifth line in Longstreet’s assault on the Federal center.

    Once the Federal line had been routed at the Brotherton Field, the different division of the assault began pulling in different directions – Bushrod Johnson’s division pushed west past the Dyer Farm in a reasonably coherent fashion, but Law’s division took three separate paths.

    Following behind was Kershaw with Humphrey’s men trailing. Law’s third brigade – Robertson’s Texans – attacked northward up the Glenn-Kelly Road. Just as they seemed to be clearing Federal fronts from their front, Harker’s brigade was lead into them with flanking artillery fire from the west – left side of Robertson’s men – supplied by Battery M 1st Ohio Artillery. Robertson’s brigade – 12:30 pm – came apart retreating into the woods 200 yards to the south. General John Hood, the corps commander, was seriously wounded trying to rally the Texans, his own former brigade command. His wounding further hampered Confederate command control in this area of the battle.

    Kershaw directed his brigade at Harker – Harker’s men were lined up from the glenn-Kelly Road up to the knoll where the South Carolina Monument now sits. A quick 15 minute battle saw Kershaw’s men triumphant and Harker was forced to retreat to Snodgrass Hill. Kershaw’s brigade became disrupted in victory, drifting in an uncoordinated fashion into the next Federal line that had just been cobbled together on Horseshoe Ridge. Their first assault – 1:15 pm – was quickly pushed back.

    Regrouping, the brigade tried again 30 minutes later with little more success after which Kershaw pulled his men back to await reinforcements. By 2:30 pm, Kershaw’s men attacked a third and final time, but Federal reinforcements made the difference. With this third repulse, Kershaw pulled his men back to the Vittoe Road. Their long day was over.

    The monument sits high on the knoll with the Battery M 1st Ohio Artillery monument nearby, both memorializing events of that afternoon 20 September 1863. From the knoll you can also see a group of unit markers along the ridge sitting atop the west edge of Dyer Field. It was here that Major John Mendenhall gathered together as many artillery pieces as he could in an attempt to stop Longstreet’s men. He placed some five batteries of guns – 26 pieces in all – along the ridge in a grand battery similar to the one he had amassed at Stones River. At Stones River his guns had open range to fire at the oncoming Rebel troops. Here, his guns could not fire because of all the retreating Federal troops fleeing from the Brotherton Field actions. Unable to fire too late and with no infantry support, Mendenhall’s gunner were quickly overrun lonsing 14 of the 26 pieces.

    Kershaw’s brigade 2nd 3rd 7th 8th 15th South Carolina regiments 3rd South Carolina Sharpshooter Battalion 1591 present/504 casualties

    South Carolina Monument South Carolinians remembered Battery M 1st Ohio Battery and South Carolina
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    GLENN-KELLY ROAD: LYTLE’S BRIGADE

    by mtncorg Written Sep 8, 2013

    1ST BRIGADE – 3RD DIVISION(Sheridan)/20TH CORPS (McCook)

    William H. Lytle grew up in Cincinnati, graduating from Cincinnati College with a degree in law. He passed the bar and started a legal practise before going off to serve in the Mexican-American War for some 10 months. Returning to Ohio, Lytle resumed his law practise and was elected to the State Legislature, as well.

    With the onset of the Civil War, Lytle became the colonel of the 10th Ohio, being wounded in early fighting in the region that would become West Virginia at the battle of Carnifex Ferry 10 September 1861. Recovering, he became a brigade commander and was wounded once again at Perrydale – 8 October 1862 – this time also being captured. Soon, thereafter, he was exchanged and promoted to brigadier general and leading a brigade.

    Lytle’s brigade had been left behind on 19 September to cover the creek crossings at Lee and Gordon Mill while the other two brigades of Sheridan’s division had marched north to help in Viniard Field. Overnight, Lytle brought his men north to reunite with rest of the division in the area around the Widow Glenn House – Wilder’s Tower, today. Sheridan received instructions late in the morning of 20 September to move his men towards the Federal left and Thomas.

    Laiboldt’s brigade was put into action when they ran head into the middle of Longstreet’s assault. Lytle was to move up in support. Laiboldt’s brigade quickly came apart and it was now up to Lytle. The men formed a semicircleatop the small hill west and south of the southern reaches of Dyer Field. Initially – noon – they were able to stop the Rebels of Deas’ Alabamians who were winded after running through two Federal lines and chasing the survivors back over a half mile. Walworth’s (Bradley’s) brigade lined up to the right of Lytle just as Patton Anderson brought up his fresh brigade to reinforce Deas. With Confederates lapping the left flank, Lytle’s brigade came apart. Lytle was mortally wounded trying to rally the 36th Illinois. The remainder of his brigade reformed along a ridge a couple of hundred yards to the west. They were then marched off the field by Sheridan a little after 12:30 in a vain attempt to circle around Missionary Ridge to reunite with Thomas.

    Here in the woods between Dyer and Glenn Fields are the regimental monuments of 36th and 88th Illinois, 21st Michigan and 24th Wisconsin, as well as the shell pyramid remembering Lytle. The pyramid was only recently repaired. In the past, shell pyramids were not cemented and thus worthy of souvenir collectors. The shells from Lytle’s monument were used as replacements for the other monuments which left Lytle’s monument with only a pyramidal base.

    Present 1593/casualties 441

    89th Illinois Regimental monument Lytle's pyramidal memorial base before restoration Memorial to the 36th Illinois Regiment 24th Wisconsin Regiment remembered Monument of the 21st Michigan Regiment
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    GLENN-KELLY ROAD: LAIBOLDT’S BRIGADE

    by mtncorg Written Sep 8, 2013

    2ND BRIGADE – 3RD DIVISION(Sheridan)/20th CORPS (McCook)

    Colonel Bernard Laiboldt had originally helped to raise the 2nd Missouri, a regiment that evolved from a pro-Unionist militia largely made of German-born soldiers. They had fought in Missouri in the early stages of the war and then moved with the 15th Missouri to join the Army of the Cumberland with Laiboldt as their commander. He was promoted to brigade commander to replace Colonel Frederich Shaefer who died at Stones River. Paired with the Missourians were two regiments from Illinois – the 44th and 73rd. The 73rd Illinois was known as a “persimmon regiment” meaning they never saw a persimmon grove that could not stop them. Laiboldt had commented that with the 2nd Missouri’s love of rails and the 73rd Illinois’ love of persimmons, he could capture Richmond with these two regiments by simply putting a pile of persimmon trees and rails in Richmond’s public square.

    Sheridan’s division had started 19 September at Lee and Gordon Mill. As the battle progressed, McCook ordered Sheridan to bring up two of his three brigades. Marching behind Bradley’s men, Laiboldt’s brigade deployed across Lafayette Road on the south edge of Viniard Field at about the time Benning’s troops were being routed out of the Ditch of Death -5:15 pm. While Bradley’s men went forward, Laibolt’s held their ground, reuniting with Bradley after his attack wasquickly stopped. Sheridan’s division retired for the night to thearea around the Widow Glenn’s House – Wilder Tower.

    Late in the morning of 20 September, Sheridan’s division stirred. With Laiboldt’s brigade in the forefront, the`division began moving northeast, up the Glenn-Kelly Road to help reinforce Thomas and the Federal left. Their timing was brutal though as they began their march just as the Federal center collapsed and the division walked right into Longstreet’s assault. Laiboldt was moving his men in a columned stacked formation – as opposed to a line formation which covers more ground. Corps commander Major General Alexander McCook, aghast at what lay ahead, ordered Laiboldt to go in and try and stem the flow. Laiboldt asked for time to redploy his men into a line formation but McCook told him to go in as he was. The Persimmon Regiment – 73rd Illinois – led the way down the hill moving towards the Glenn-Kelly Road. They really ‘t have didn’t have much of a chance to get off much in the way of fire as the remnants of other Federal brigades – Carlin’s and Martin’s (Heg’s) – masked their field of fire. Deas’ brigade of Hindman’ s division had no such problem. Arrayed in their linear formation, they also quickly laped the flanks of Laiboldt’s men and their volleys ripped apart Laiboldt’s compact regiments. His routed troops overran the headquarters of Rosecrans on the west side of Dyer Field which led to both Rosecrans andMcCook being driven off the battlefield around noon.

    Laiboldt’s Illinois regiments have placed their monuments in their positions opposite the Tan Yards where they cam to grief on 20 September 1863 – 44th Illinois and 73rd`Illinois

    Present 1100/casualties 384

    73rd & 44th Illinois - markers for 2nd & 15th MO
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    LAFAYETTE ROAD: VISITOR CENTER

    by mtncorg Written Sep 8, 2013

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    Located near the intersection of Reed Bridge and Lafayette Roads, the Visitor Center is a good place to start your discovery of the Park and the battle that took place here. General information can uncover some of the confusing events. Other information relates to the development of this the first Federal battlefield to be preserved – 1890. There is an informative film and a large collection of guns large and small to attend to.

    Description of Battlefield Monument development Historic plaques and markers described The actual building of the battlefield monuments
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    LAFAYETTE ROAD: JOHN BEATTY’S BRIGADE

    by mtncorg Updated Sep 8, 2013

    1ST BRIGADE – 2ND DIVISION(Negley)/14th CORPS (Thomas)

    John Beatty was an Ohio banker before the war. He joined the 3rd Ohio as a private and soon shot up in rank. As a colonel, he led his regiment at Perryville in October 1862, being elevated to brigadier general and brigade command shortly afterwards. At Stones River, he had two horses shot out from under him being right in the thick of the action.

    19 September saw Beatty’s brigade covering the ford over Chickamauga Creek at Glass Mill, several miles to the south of the battlefield. They repulsed several Confederate attempts at crossing during the day until they were ordered north around 5 pm. Early on 20 September, they were sent to join Thomas’ men on the left end of the Federal line. Thomas put the brigade on the extreme left. He wanted Beatty to cover the ground all the way to the McDonald Farm at the intersection of Reed’s Bridge and Lafayette Roads. This frontage was much too large for a single brigade to cover – more like the area an entire division would cover – but Thomas was hoping to bring the rest of Negley’s division up to help in quick order.

    Negley’s other two brigades – Sirwell and Stanley – were delayed when Rosecrans ordered them to stay in place in Brotherton Field until Wood’s division relieved them. Those two brigades were not marching north until 9 am which was too late to help Beatty since Breckinridge’s division launched their attack on the Union left at 9:30 am.

    Beatty’s regiments were widely separated – the 42nd and 88th Indiana being next to Reed Bridge Road across Lafayette Road from today’s Visitor Center while the 104th Illinois and 15th Kentucky defended the fields south around where the Florida monument now sits. Adams’ brigade quickly routed the Indianan regiments who were done for the day afterwards – survivors fleeing to the west. The 104th Illinois faced Stovall’s entire brigade but was able to withdraw in better order, falling back to try and form up near where the monument to Captain Lyman Bridges’ Illinois Battery is today. On their right, the 15th Kentucky was back by two Rebel Kentucky regiments – 4th and 6th Kentucky – of Helm’s brigade. This is where the Kentucky Monument is placed today. Both regiments fell back further into the woods some 300 yards leaving Bridges’ gun behind.

    The Confederates would be repulsed, but the two remaining regiments of Beatty’s brigade were pulled back to Snodgrass Hill where division`commander Major General James Negley was. By midday, the Federal center and right had collapsed and Negley, believing he was alone on the battlefield, pulled off moost of the troops, artillery and supplies he had amassed on Snodgrass Hill at around 12:30 pm – some 2600 men plus sorely missed division ammunition trains. The remaining men of Beatty’s brigade were included. Beatty, himself, stayed and would be involved along with Major General John Brannan in forming a defensive line along Horseshoe Ridge.

    The 42nd and 88th Indiana have placed their monuments near Reed Bridge Road on either side of Lafayette Road. The 104th Illinois has its monument out in the field next to the Florida Monument.

    Present 1191 men/Casualties 284

    Monument to Captain Lyman Bridges' Battery
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    LAFAYETTE ROAD - KENTUCKY MONUMENT

    by mtncorg Written Sep 8, 2013

    Being a Border State, Kentucky supplied men to both sides at Chickamauga – some 1027 of Helms’ brigade on the Rebel side and 5402 men on the Federal side distributed among some 11 brigades. The Kentucky Monument is located next to the intersection of Alexander Bridge and Lafayette Roads. This is where at 9:45am 20 September Brigadier General Benjamin Helm’s –Helm was also the brother-in-law of Abraham Lincoln – Orphan Brigade – so-called because their fight on the Confederate side took them far from their homes in the Bluegrass State – slammed into the 15th Kentucky fighting as a part of John Beatty’s brigade, Kentuckian versus Kentuckian. The 15th Kentucky was forced back in this instance, but most of Helm’s Orphans ran head into Thomas’ prepared left flank. They were repulse with heavy casualty including Helm who was mortally wounded. All Kentuckians, Blue and Grey, are remembered on this monument with all units involved on either side inscribed on the sides.

    Kentucky Monument along Lafayette Road Another view of the Kentucky Monument Lincoln and Helm shaking hands in Kentucky
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