Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park Things to Do

  • Monument of the 19th Illinois
    Monument of the 19th Illinois
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  • Missouri State Monument off Crest Road
    Missouri State Monument off Crest Road
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  • Missouri Monument at Bragg Reservation
    Missouri Monument at Bragg Reservation
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Best Rated Things to Do in Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park

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    Cannon overlooking the river

    by mrclay2000 Written Feb 25, 2003

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    The true interest for Point Park and the Lookout Mountain Civil War displays is the position of the armaments with respect to the Tennessee River and modern-day Chattanooga. Coined at the time of the fighting as the "Battle Above the Clouds" (the Point Park museum has a pavilion devoted to this idea), you can see first-hand the relative positions from above and below by standing on the cliffs where the cannon now stand.

    cannon overlooking Tennessee River
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    NEW YORK STATE MONUMENT: IRELAND’S BRIGADE

    by mtncorg Written Jul 8, 2014

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    David Ireland was born, ironically, in Scotland. His family immigrated to New York when he was eight years old. Apprenticed as a tailor to his father in New York City before the war, he had been a part of a militia regiment known as the 79th Cameron Highlanders. With the coming of the war, the 79th was absorbed into the New York Volunteers as the 79th New York with Ireland serving as regimental adjutant to Colonel James Cameron. The 79th New York fought as a part of William T. Sherman’s brigade at the Henry House during the First Bull Run. Cameron – a brother of the Federal Secretary of War Simon Cameron – was killed during the battle.

    After the battle, many of the officers resigned while many soldiers mutinied claiming that they had only signed up for three months and not the three years that the army was claiming. General George McClellan quickly put down the mutiny sending the ringleaders off to the Dry Tortugas and taking away the unit colors saying the regiment had to earn them back. Only a lieutenant, Ireland led the men to a victory at a small ambush 11 September 1861 near Falls Church. The regimental colors were restored and Ireland was given the unusual honor of being promoted to captain in the 15th U.S. Infantry – a regular army regiment.

    He spent most of the next year acting as a recruiting officer working out of Binghamton, New York. Eventually, the governor named Ireland as the colonel of one of the new regiments – the 137th New York – that were being raised. The 137th went south at the end of September 1862 to join the 12th Corps which served as part of the reserve of the Army of the Potomac. The regiment fought at Chancellorsville and then at Gettysburg where Ireland’s regiment took a position on the far right of the Union line defending Culp’s Hill.

    With the Federal defeat at Chickamauga, the 12th and 11th Corps were put under the command of Major General Joseph Hooker and sent west to reinforce Rosecrans’ army. Ireland’s regiment was a part of Brigadier George S. Greene’s brigade. Greene was wounded at the Battle of Wauhatchie on 29 October as the Confederates unsuccessfully attempted to keep Hooker’s men away from Chattanooga. Ireland took over brigade command and played a leading role in the success at Lookout Mountain on 24 November helping to sweep the Confederates away – there is a large New York State Monument on the mountain remembering there.

    On 25 November, Ireland’s brigade served as a part of Brigadier General John W. Geary’s divisional push out of Rossville Gap along the west side of Missionary Ridge in the 12th Corps three-pronged attack: Geary on the west side, Cruft along the crest and Osterhaus on the east side to scoop up retreating Rebels.

    Ireland would go on to lead his New York brigade in the Atlanta campaign being wounded at Resaca 15 May 1864. He returned to lead his men 6 June and was with the brigade when Atlanta fell 2 September. Ireland had married shortly before his regiment came west on 26 August 1863. Sadly the marriage was brief as he died from dysentery on 10 September 1864 in Atlanta. He is buried in Binghamton, New York.

    This monument remembers the 60th, 102nd, 137th and 149th New York regiments who were with Colonel Ireland on 25 November. The 78th New York was also a part of the brigade, but they had been left to guard the brigade camp back over in Lookout Valley. Later in July 1864, both the 78th and 102nd New York were combined into one regiment. Each of these regiments are remembered by a monument at Gettysburg, as well as another brigade monument similar to this one over in Lookout Valley erected for their actions at Wauhatchie when the brigade was under Greene’s command – the 78th, 137th and 149th New York were present for that battle.

    New York marker for David Ireland's brigade
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    BRAGG RESERVATION: HARKER’S BRIGADE

    by mtncorg Written Jul 8, 2014

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    Charles G. Harker was originally from New Jersey. Graduating from West Point in 1858, he had been on the frontier in Oregon and Washington Territory at the war’s outset. Promoted to 1st lieutenant and then captain in the Regular Army while training Ohio volunteers, he leapt in rank to become the colonel of the 65th Ohio. He and his men saw their first action at Shiloh. Harker went on to command brigades at Perrydale and Stones River. His ]brigade helped to hold the line on Snodgrass Hill through the long afternoon of 20 September 1863 at Chickamauga. Promoted to brigadier general of volunteers, he was leading a much larger brigade here at Missionary Ridge as his former command had been combined with much of Laiboldt’s brigade - 22nd, 27th, 42nd and 51st Illinois – and the 79th Illinois was brought over from what had been Dodge’s brigade. With so many more regiments, his combined strength was still about the same as the number of men he led at Chickamauga.

    The brigade was split into two tactical units by Harker on 25 November to give better control due to the terrain. The demi-brigade to the right/north being led by Colonel Nathan Walworth of the 42nd Illinois and the demi-brigade on the left/south by Colonel Emerson Opdycke of the 125th Ohio - his units included the 125th Ohio, 64th, 65th, and 79th Illinois.

    Around 3 pm, Harker’s men advanced slightly behind and to the right of the brigade of George Wagner. As they came onto the rifle pits at the base of Missionary Ridge, the men kept going uphill – Wagner was not aware of Grant’s admonition to stop there and he thought the crest was his objective. Harker’s left flank regiment, the 3rd Kentucky, had been told to keep up with the troops on their left – Wagner – so as they continued, so did the Kentuckians. About halfway up, Wagner issued a withdrawal – a mix up in orders from corps commander Gordon Granger meant the men were to return to the rifle pits. As Wagner’s men started to come back downhill, so did the 3rd Kentucky and parts of the 64th and 125th Ohio as well, jamming into the now overcrowded pits.

    Sheridan had watched the retreat of Wagner and Opdycke’s demi-brigade and contemptuous of the order from Granger, he got Harker and Opdycke ready to uphill again. He accompanied the 79th Illinois as they pushed uphill with the rest of the brigade. Advancing under the cover of smoke and the steepness of the terrain, the Federals pushed up. Confederates on the crest were further hampered by their own retreating men – many of whom were of no further use in the defense of the ridge as they were worn out by their own uphill ordeal.

    Hazen’s brigade was out in front further to the north ripping a quarter mile hole in the Confederate line in the area around the Ohio Reservation. Bragg had just congratulated division commander William Bate on the seeming defeat of Wagner and Harker when he realized what was happening to the north. He had already sent of his reserves to Tunnel Hill to stave off Sherman but now he pushed Bate to send some of his men north along the crest to stave off Hazen just as Sheridan’s division came uphill once again. Bate’s extra men did little to influence an already serious situation to the north. Their absence made it much easier now for the position at the Bragg Reservation to fold, as well. Federals pushed up Moore Road coming out onto the crest as Confederate infantrymen melted off to the east leaving the artillery batteries to fend for themselves. Harker, himself, excited at what his men had just accomplished, jumped off his horse and onto the barrel of Lady Breckinridge – one of the guns captured from Cobb’s Kentucky Battery. The gun barrel was still too hot from its earlier use and Harker jumped off it as quick as he was on.

    The monument of the 42nd, 27th and 79th Illinois continue the Illinois line of regiments northwards from Sherman’s Illinois markers sited just in front of the cannons marking Cobb’s Battery. The 42nd and 27th were a part of Laibolddt’s brigade at Chickamauga and have monuments out in the fields by the Tan Yard north of Wilder’s Tower. The 79th Illinois had been with Dodge’s brigade at Chickamauga and have a monument in the woods just to the southwest of the Alexander’s Bridge Road/Brotherton Road intersection. The 51st and 22nd Illinois are at the north end of the Illinois monuments here at Bragg Reservation. These two regiments fought with Bradley’s brigade at Chickamauga as their monuments north of Wilder’s Tower attest. Markers for the 64th and 65th Ohio are found just next to the marker for the 22nd Illinois on the north edge of the Bragg Reservation. These regiments were a part of Harker’s brigade atop Snodgrass Hill where they are remembered, as well. Both of these regiments also have a monument at Shiloh.

    Colonel Emerson Opdycke started the war with the 41st Ohio fighting at Shiloh as a part of Hazen’s brigade. He was then reassigned to recruit the 125th Ohio becoming their colonel early in 1863. His regiment was instrumental in Harker’s defense of Snodgrass Hill at Chickamauga. The 125th was nicknamed Opdycke’s Tigers, as a result of their actions there – obvious by their monument. Opdycke would continue to lead the regiment during the Atlanta campaign suffering a wound at Resaca, but recovering in time to lead again at Kennesaw Mountain. He helped recover the Union position which had been briefly breached at the battle of Franklin – his counterattack turned that battle around. Opdycke would survive the war going into dry goods business in New York dying of a gunshot wound incurred while cleaning his gun. Brigade commander Harkins would not survive the war, dying at Kennesaw Mountain at the age of only 26. He is buried back in his native New Jersey.

    Marker notes actions of 125th Ohio Harker's Brigade at Missionary Ridge 64th and 65th Ohio here captured Rebel guns 32nd Illinois of Harker's Brigade
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    BRAGG RESERVATION: WAGNER’S BRIGADE/97TH OHIO

    by mtncorg Updated Jul 8, 2014

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    Brigadier General George D. Wagner commanded the brigade that made up the left flank of Philip Sheridan’s division. Wagner was a farmer and politician from Indiana before the war. Initially, he had been the colonel of the 15th Indiana – one of the regiments of the brigade – but he had led a brigade since before Shiloh. His men fought hard at Stones River but missed the fight at Chickamauga serving as garrison troop back in Chattanooga.

    With a skirmish line in front, Wagner’s brigade attacked the rifle pit line in two lines. The first line drove beyond the pits climbing uphill before Wagner recalled them due to a mix up in orders. It soon became apparent that to stay in the line of the rifle pits was not a good thing since there weren’t enough pits to go around and that the Confederates could see and range their artillery in on the milling Federals. Sheridan gave Wagner the ok to continue the assault uphill. Sending his reserve line out in front led by Lieutenant Colonel Milton Barnes’ 97th Ohio – Barnes would be a two term Secretary of State for Ohio in the postwar years. Other units joined the upward push and with Hazen’s troops already flanking the Rebel positions to the north, Wagner’s men gained the crest along with Sherman’s brigade to their right.

    Besides a marker for Wagner’s brigade, there is one regimental monument for the 97th Ohio. Like the other regiments of Wagner’s brigade at the time of Chickamauga, the 97th did not take part in that battle. The other units of Wagner had already placed monuments at Shiloh but the 97th had not yet been formed at the time of that battle. So, they have their regimental monument here on the north edge of the Bragg reservation. A tablet further north next to the south entry for the Crest Road Bridge over I-24 is actually where the regiment gained the crest.

    Two other marker tablets commemorate other regiments of Wagner’s brigade. On the north side of the same bridge is a tablet commemorating the 26th Ohio. They were nicknamed the Groundhog Regiment because of the fast and efficient manner in which the men could dig into ground when they had to. The 26th Ohio had previous experience in the Round Forest at Stones River, as well as with Buell’s brigade at Chickamauga where the regimental monument stands in Viniard Field. The regiment suffered some 56% casualties in the two days of fighting there – 213 men out of 377.

    Another three houses north is the tablet of the 100th Illinois along the west side of Crest Road. The 100th Illinois lost 165 men of 315 at Chickamauga with every man of the color guard going down but one. Their commander, Colonel Bartleson, had been wounded and was then taken prisoner spending the next seven months at Libby Prison in Richmond, Virginia. Eventually exchanged, Bartleson returned to lead the 100th again dying at Kennesaw Mountain.

    Other regiments of Wagner that had fought as a part of Buell’s brigade at Chickamauga included the 58th Indiana. The 51st Indiana has a monument at Shiloh even though they arrived too late for that battle. They had been led by Colonel Abel Streight and had been involved in a long range raid of brigade strength mounted upon mules striking deep towards north Alabama in early 1863. In the course of their raid, Confederate forces led by Nathan Forrest had been able to surround and capture the Union force. The men of the 51st had just been paroled in early November and had just returned to the army in time for the events here on Missionary Ridge.

    Wagner would continue to lead his brigade through the Atlanta campaign suffering heavy casualties at Kennesaw Mountain. Raised to division command, his reputation was dashed at Franklin when he left part of his force out in an exposed position allowing the Confederates to briefly pierce the center of the Federal line. Criticism and his wife’s ill health led him to resign. His wife would die within a year of the war’s end and he followed in 1869 at the age of only 39.

    Monument of the 97th Ohio on Missionary Ridge Illinois State Monument and the 97th Ohio
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    Cravens House

    by mrclay2000 Written Feb 25, 2003

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    I've never found it open, but the Cravens House will give you a less contrived view of Civil War apparatus about halfway up Lookout Mountain. There are a few cannon, some monuments and the structure, and also a few foot trails leading to other sites on the mountain.

    Cravens House environs
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    Cravens House continued

    by mrclay2000 Written Feb 25, 2003

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    There are more monuments here than at Point Park at the top of the hill (a fee area), but at 2 to 1 there is not much difference in the monuments themselves. There are certainly more cannon higher up in the park, but between the Cravens House and the museum in Point Park, the visitor must decide which has the better offerings.

    Craven house environs
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    The Centerpiece

    by mrclay2000 Written Feb 25, 2003

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    The New York monument is the centerpiece of the Point Park section of Chickamauga/Chattanooga. The rest of the prominence is encircled with field pieces. With the trees situated as they are, a good unobstructed view of the monument is nearly impossible.

    New York monument
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    battle of chickamauga

    by doug48 Updated Sep 20, 2009

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    in my opinion to truly understand the second battle of chattanooga you should visit the chickamauga battle site in georgia first. in september of 1863 the confederate forces under the command of general james longstreet defeated the forces of union general william rosecrans. the turing point for the confederates was the battle of snodgass hill. rosecrans was forced to retreat towards chattanooga and was pursued by the army of confederate general braxton bragg. this defeat allowed bragg to set up confederate positions on lookout mountain and missionary ridge which was the basis of the second battle of chattanooga.

    site of the battle of snodgrass hill general james longstreet CSA union general william s. rosecrans
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    battle of chattanooga museum

    by doug48 Written Sep 19, 2009

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    the battle of chattanooga museum is a good first stop on a visit to lookout mountain. this small museum and gift shop has a topographical map and uses miniture solders to explain the battle. a good place to orientate yourself to find the historic battle sites in the chattanooga area.

    battle of chattanooga museum
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    point park

    by doug48 Updated Sep 19, 2009

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    originally called lookout point, point park is located on the top of lookout mountain. at the park you can get spectacular views of chattanooga and get an impression of this strategic confederate position. point park is part of chickamauga chattanooga national military park.

    point park entrance
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    peace monument

    by doug48 Updated Apr 4, 2011

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    located on the grounds of point park is the peace monument. this massive monument was built by the state of new york in 1910. the statues on the top of the monument are union and confederate solders shaking hands.

    new york peace monument
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    cravens house

    by doug48 Updated Sep 20, 2009

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    cravens house is located about half way up lookout mountain just past ruby falls on scenic hwy. this historic home was originally built by robert cravens in 1855. during the second battle of chattanooga the cravens house was an observation post and headquarters for both the union and confederacy. on a foggy day on november 24 th 1863 the forces of union general joseph hooker took this location in what is known as "the battle above the clouds". union troops destroyed the cravens house after the battle and cravens returned to the site after the civil war and rebuilt the house that you see today.

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    8TH KANSAS MONUMENT – WILLICH’S BRIGADE

    by mtncorg Written Jul 8, 2014

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    The 8th Kansas fought long and hard during the Civil War. They had been organized under the command of a West Pointer Colonel Henry Wessels in late November 1861. Wessels was sent east by the army to take up another command in February 1862 and Lieutenant Colonel John A. Martin – a 22 year old editor – took over. Ordered east to help in the Siege of Corinth after Shiloh, the 8th Kansas would become part of the Army of the Cumberland in time for Perryville. They missed Stones River since they were serving as a provost guard in Nashville at the time, but they were back actively with the army for the Tullahoma campaign and served as part of Hans Heg’s brigade at Chickamauga.

    The reorganization following Chickamauga saw Heg’s brigade becoming absorbed into that of Augusts Willich’s. Heg’s brigade had suffered heavy losses at Chickamauga – the 8th Kansas lost 210 men out of 406; the 25th Illinois lost 205 men of 337 and the 35th Illinois lost 160 men of 299 – much like other brigades. Regiments were shells of what they had been before. An average brigade in the Army of the Cumberland at Missionary Ridge was double the size it had been at Chickamauga reflecting those casualty lists.

    John Martin returned to Kansas after the war to his newspaper in Atchison becoming involved in GOP politics. He served two terms as governor from 1884 to 1888 dying at the age of 50 one year after leaving office.

    Notes on other regiments in Willich’s brigade: the 15th Ohio was originally banded with the 49th Ohio, 32nd Indiana (First German – Willich’s original regiment) and the 39th Indiana. The originally regimental commander, Colonel Moses Dickey, resigned in October 1862, upset because he felt passed over when Willich was given command of the brigade – led by Colonel W.H. Gibson of the 49th Ohio at Shiloh. William Wallace took command of the 15th and led the regiment at Stone River. Ill health took him back to Ohio and Frank Askew took over for the rest of the war. Askew was wounded and captured at Stones River but had been left behind when the Confederates retreated after the battle. Brigade commander Willich had suffered a similar fate but the Rebels took him with them. Private Robert Brown of the 15th captured a Confederate color bearer on the crest of Missionary Ridge taking him and the flag of the 9th Mississippi to Colonel Askew. For his actions, he eventually received the Medal of Honor.

    The 68th Indiana was one of the last Federal units on the field at Chickamauga covering the left flank during the withdrawal off Horseshoe Ridge. Their commander, Lieutenant Harvey J. Espy, was wounded here in the assault up Missionary Ridge.

    W.H. Gibson had recruited and trained the 49th Ohio leading them as the first Federal regiment to enter Kentucky – 22 September 1861. At Shiloh, Gibson was given brigade command leading them in battle during the afternoon of 7 April. They missed out on Perryville, but at Stones River, they started that battle with Gibson back in charge. He again took over brigade command when Willich was captured. The suceeding lieutenant colonel was killed; the major wounded and all senior captains were killed or wounded with the day ending and the regiment under command of a junior captain. At Chickamauga, the 49th Ohio again saw ferious action on both days of battle led by Major Samuel F. Gray. Gray led the 49th again here.

    The 15th Wisconsin was kept in reserve at Missionary Ridge. They were led by a senior captain, Captain John A. Gordon, one of the few non-Norwegians in the “Scandanavian Regiment”, a regiment that had lost 176 men at Chickamauga including its old commander Colonel Hans C. Heg who was commanding their brigade that day. Heg’s three other regiments were part of Willich’s brigade here too – the 25th and 35th Illinois and the 8th Kansas. Here at Missionary Ridge, the 35th Illinois, on the left flank of the brigade’s front, their commander, Lieutenant Colonel W.P. Chandler carried the regimental colors into the Rebel line on the ridge crest after all of his color bearers had been killed or wounded.

    The 32nd Indiana had originally been recruited and drilled – in German – by Willich. The were first atop the ridge crest along with the 6th Ohio of Hazen’s brigade. The 32nd Indiana have monuments at Shiloh - where Willich led them – and at Chickamauga where they were led by the same commander who led them at Missionary Ridge – Lieutenant Colonel Francis Erdelmeyer. Erdelmeyer had immigrated from Germany at the age of 17, working as an upholster apprentice – first in New York City and then in Indianapolis. Like many German immigrants, he was a member of the Turngemeinde – Turner Club, so named after German nationalist Frederich Ludwig Jahn – Turner Jahn. Jahn was a Prussian gymnastics teacher who developed gymnastics clubs in the aftermath of the Napoleonic wars aimed at restoring the spirits of his countrymen, but also with an eye towards developing a unified Germany with a democratic constitution and free speech – two items not popular with the presiding Hohenzollern monarchy.

    Erdelmeyer joined Colonel Lew Wallace’s three-month 11th Zouaves at the war’s outset, going on to become a captain in the 32nd Indiana at the end of that term. He took command of the regiment just before Stones River when Willich was raised to brigade command. He led the regiment until the three-year tour was over in August 1864. The surviviors of the regiment returned to Indianapolis having served their time, disappointed at the general anit-German feeling which existed in the Northern States at the time.

    The 8th Kansas is the only regiment of the brigade to have a monument placed here on Missionary Ridge – they also have a smaller one on nearby Orchard Knob where Willich’s men had been involved two days earlier – 23 november. Their other monument is on the north side of Viniard Field along with the other regiments of Heg’s brigade. While no other regiments have monuments here, there are marker tablets for each regiment – the 25th and 35th Illinois being just north of the 8th Kansas while the 89th Illinois, 49th Ohio, 15th Wisconsin, 15th Ohio and 32nd Indiana are just south along Crest Road. The 89th Illinois, 32nd Indiana, 15th and 49th Ohio had been under Willich at Chickamauga and have their own monuments there.

    Monument of the 8th Kansas along Crest Road
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    DELONG RESERVATION: 2ND MINNESOTA/TURCHIN’S

    by mtncorg Updated Jul 8, 2014

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    The next stop of consequence heading north on Crest Road is the DeLong Reservation. You have passed the small Turchin Reservation on the way where there is a marker for Brigadier General Samuel Beatty’s brigade. Beatty’s men were to the left of of Willich’s brigade and they made up the left of Wood’s division in the attack on Missionary Ridge. Turchin’s brigade – of Baird’s division – reached the crest of the ridge actually further to the north around the DeLong Reservation and that is where the brigade tablet is located.

    Beatty’s brigade were an amalgamation like most of the rest of the Army of the Cumberland following the losses incurred at Chickamauga. His brigade was combined with that of Colonel George F. Dicks - Dick was back commanding his 86th Indiana. Beatty’s brigade had seen hard fighting by the time of Missionary Ridge with the 9th Kentucky, 19th and 59th Ohio making up the bulk of Boyle’s brigade at Shiloh.

    Turchin had the 11th, 36th and 92nd Ohio with him at Chickamauga, while the 82nd Indiana, 17th and 31st Ohio had been a part of Colonel John Connell’s brigade and the 89th Ohio being temporarily unatttached at the time of Chickamauga had gone into the fight on Horseshoe Ridge as a part of Colonel John G. Mitchell’s reserve brigade. Markers exist for Turchin’s regiments on both sides of the DeLong Reservation: 17th Ohio to the south; 89th and 92nd Ohio to the north for this part fo the crest where they came up along with the 9th Kentucky of Samuel Beatty’s brigade.

    Facing them here was Water’s Alabama Battery consisting of five cannons. The 17th Ohio and Beatty’s brigade gained the crest to the south and rolled the Confederate line northwards capturing four of the guns.

    The main monument here is to the 2nd Minnesota, a regiment belonging to the brigade of Colonel Ferdinand Van DerVeer. They and the rest of Van DerVeer’s men actually gained the crest a ways to the north. Six of the seven color bearers of the 2nd Minnesota were killed or wounded in the assault. The regiment also has three monuments at Chickamauga besides this one which dates to 1893. Van Derveer’s pre-Chickamaugan regiments – the 87th Indiana, 9th and 35th Ohio – also have monuments at Chickamauga. New regiments for Van DerVeer here at Missionary Ridge – the 68th, 75th and 101st Indiana and the 105th Ohio had fought at Chickamauga under Colonel Edward A. King who had died there.

    Monument of 2nd Minnesota and guns of Waters Tablet explaining actions of Turchin's Brigade Guns of Waters' Battery Guns could not be depressed enough in attack
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    MORTUARY CANNON FOR COLONEL PHELPS

    by mtncorg Written Jul 8, 2014

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    Edward H. Phelps led the north flank of Brigadier Absalom Baird’s division – Van DerVeer and Turchin lead the other two brigades to the south. Phelps had enlisted in 1861 becoming the lieutenant colonel of the 38th Ohio at the age of 32. He was promoted to full colonel after six months leading the regiment at Stones River where they saw slight action coming late onto the filed. At Chickamauga, the 38th – detached from Colonel John M. Connell’s brigade - was guarding a supply wagon train moving towards Chattanooga.

    After Chickamauga, Phelps was given command of the third brigade of Baird’s division. The brigade was john Croxton’s old brigade with the 38th Ohio added on – 10th and 74th Indiana; 4th, 10th and 18th Kentucky and the 14th Ohio. Croxton had been wounded at Chickamauga, so Phelps was brought in. Here, at Missionary Ridge, Phelps’ brigade was held in check by steeper terrain than elsewhere and the men of Brigadier General Alfred Vaughan. The rupture of the Confederate line south of here mad Vaughan’s stand here only a matter of time, however. Phelps had been wounded once down near the rifle pits, but he continued to exhort his men upward. He was shot down for good just near the crest of the ridge. The Rebel line withdrew shortly afterwards as darkness closed out the fight.

    Inverted cannon remembers Colonel Phelps
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