Shiloh National Military Park Off The Beaten Path

  • 6th Ohio of Ammen's brigade
    6th Ohio of Ammen's brigade
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  • Monument of the 24th Ohio in Shiloh's light
    Monument of the 24th Ohio in Shiloh's...
    by mtncorg
  • Bruce's brigade marker north of Bloody Pond
    Bruce's brigade marker north of Bloody...
    by mtncorg

Most Recent Off The Beaten Path in Shiloh National Military Park

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    U.S. ARTILLERY BATTERIES – MENDENHALL AND TERRILL

    by mtncorg Updated May 31, 2014
    Monument to Mendenhall and Terrill U.S. Artillery
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    Located along the Hamburg-Savannah Road on the north side of the Bloody Pond is a monument dedicated to the Batteries H and M of the 4th U.S. Artillery and Battery H of the 5th U.S. Artillery – Captain William Terrill commanded the latter battery and Captain John Mendenhall had the first two batteries. The position of the monument was used by Terrill in support of Ammen’s brigade on 7 April. Mendenhall’s batteries supported Hazen’s men in the nearby Wicker Field.

    Mendenhall was a West Pointer from 1851. Prior to the war, he had served all over the West with the cavalry before moving to the artillery in 1859. Shiloh was his first combat commanding artillery batteries. Nelson’s division – of whom both Ammen’s and Hazen’s brigades were a part of – had advanced without their artillery in a rush to get to the battlefield on 6 April. Mendenhall was normally a part of Crittenden’s division while Terrill was with McCook. They were lent to Nelson on this morning. After his work in Wicker Field, Buell moved Mendenhall’s guns further to the right to support McCook’s division as it came onto the field attacking in the Review Field around 1:30 pm.

    Mendenhall is more famous for his massed grand battery at Stones River which helped crush the attack of 2 January 1863. He tried a similar tactic on the second day of Chickamauga, but didn’t have enough time to pull it off a second time. He went on to a long career in the post-war army serving all over the coastlines of the U.S. including a stint as commander of the Department of Alaska 1876-1877. He died as a colonel of the U.S. 2nd Artillery commanding at Fort Adams in Newport News, Rhode Island in 1892 and is buried at West Point.

    Terrill led a fascinating life, as well, though as you can read from the website below, he did not live near as long as his comrade, Mendenhall.

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    HAZEN’S BRIGADE

    by mtncorg Updated May 31, 2014
    41st Ohio in Wicker Field
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    The men of Colonel William Hazen did not cross over the Tennessee River at Pittsburgh Landing until 9 pm on 6 April. They formed on the right of Bruce’s brigade advancing early – 5:30 am –the next morning, engaging the Confederates in Wicker Field at about 8 am. An advance into the Davis Wheat Field was – around 11 am – checked by a counterattack by the Crescent Regiment and 19th Louisiana which pushed Hazen’s men back to the Sunken Road. Each side would exchange attacks before the Confederates would finally begin to withdraw around 2 pm.

    Hazen had grown up in Hiram, Ohio where he was a close friend of James Garfield. He graduated from West Point in 1855 and had been wounded in a fight with Comanches in Texas in 1859. With the onset of the Civil War, Hazen became the colonel of t he 41st Ohio and had been elevated to brigade command shortly before Shiloh. As a brigade commander, he would go on to more memorable battles – Perrydale, Stones River, Chickamauga, though his brigade is best known for their stalwart defense of the Round Forest at Stones River. Hazen would eventually reach divisional command and – very late in the war – corps command. Staying on in the army after the war, he would serve on the Western Frontier. In the postwar years he was known for being “disputatious” taking on powerful men including Philip Sheridan, Robert Todd Lincoln and William Belknap – Grant’s Secretary of War – among others. In 1880, Hazen was promoted to brigadier general in the regular army and was made the Chief Signal Officer until his death in 1887 – his widow would remarry Admiral George Dewey in 1899.

    Brigade notes: the 41st Ohio suffered an almost 50% casualty rate here at Shiloh during their first engagement of the war. This was Hazen’s initial command and as a regular army officer, his volunteers thought of him as harsh and dictatorial – a common feeling of volunteers serving under former regulars. Stones River and Chickamauga lie ahead in the regiment’s future.

    One of the famous writers to come out of the Civil War was Ambrose Bierce. He spent three years with the 9th Indiana and his article “What I Saw of Shiloh” describes his battle experiences here with the 9th. Bierce described Hazen as “the best hated man I ever knew.” The commander of the 9th Indiana, Colonel Gideon Moody, an Indianan lawyer before the war, would move on to the Dakota Territories after his resignation from the army in 1864. Moody served in the Territorial House of Representatives and on the Territorial Supreme Court as an associate justice before being elected to the U.S. Senate when South Dakota became a State.

    Walter Whitaker, colonel of the 6th Kentucky, had served in the Mexican War and was a lawyer in Kentucky before the war. The fighting in the Wheat Field got to hand-to-hand at one point and Whitaker knifed a Southerner to death here. He would be wounded in the Round Forest at Stones River but go on to brigade command after recovering. His brigade played a major role in the late stages of the Battle of Chickamauga where his men helped in the defense of Horseshoe Ridge and he was again wounded - some have mistaken him for being drunk here, but the evidence suggests otherwise. Eventually he would serve as a division commander – both at Franklin and Nashville late in 1864. After the war, he resumed a law practice in Louisville. While he may not have been drunk at Chickamauga, he did have a drinking problem and would end up in an asylum for a period in his post war life.

    Regimental monuments of the 9th Indiana and 41st Ohio are found in the south end of Wicker Field where they fought hard on 7 April. The 6th Kentucky is remembered on the Kentucky State Monument on the east edge of Cloud Field. Both the 41st Ohio and the 9th Indiana have monuments erected at Chickamauga, as well.

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    BOYLE’S BRIGADE

    by mtncorg Updated May 27, 2014
    59th Ohio of Boyle's brigade
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    Brigadier General Jeremiah T. Boyle led the other brigade of Thomas Crittenden’s division forming up behind Smith’s brigade on the morning of 7 April around 8 am. They became engaged in the east Duncan Field along with Captain Joseph Bartlett’s Battery G – a Cleveland unit – in support. Here they fought elements of Trabue’s Kentucky brigade which was soon flanked by Rousseau’s oncoming brigade coming out of the north Duncan Field. Boyle’s men pushed on down to the Hamburg-Purdy Road at about 1 pm – the 19th Ohio being lent to Nelson’s division to fight over in the Peach Orchard earlier around noon.

    Boyle had been a slave-owning Whig lawyer from Kentucky before the war. Son of a U.S. Chief Justice – John Boyle – and brother-in-law to a former congressman, Boyle was in favor of a gradual emancipation of slavery. With the war, he raised a brigade of infantry for Federal service and was made a brigadier general. After Shiloh, Boyle was appointed military governor of Kentucky by Lincoln. He left the army after the death of his son, William – the youngest colonel in the Union army who died in battle at Marion, Tennessee. After the war, Boyle oversaw the creation of Louisville’s first street rail system and was involved in the rail industry until his death in 1871.

    Brigade notes: Colonel Samuel Beatty of the 19th Ohio would go on to brigade command seeing heavy action at Stones River, Chickamauga and Nashville.

    The regimental monuments of the 19th Ohio and the 59th Ohio are found off the Eastern Corinth Road about 100 yards south of its intersection with the Corinth Road – about halfway to the Sunken Road. This is where the brigade first came into action. The battery monument of Bartlett’s Battery is just opposite that of the 59th along the Eastern Corinth Road. The two Kentucky regiments – 9th and 13th Kentucky – remembered on the Kentucky State Monument just east of Cloud Field. The 19th Ohio and the 59th Ohio also have separate monuments erected at Chickamauga where they fought in different brigades.

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    VISITOR CENTER

    by mtncorg Written May 26, 2014
    Visitor Center at Shiloh National Battlefield
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    The Visitor Center above Pittsburgh Landing is, of course, a logical place to start. The basic history of the battle and its importance is laid out here in movies and exhibits. There is a book store across from the center. Next to the book store is the National Cemetery.

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    U.S.S. TYLER AND LEXINGTON

    by mtncorg Written May 26, 2014
    Picture at Visitor Center show gunboats in action
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    Steam –powered gunboats were a major factor in the successful Federal penetration into the riverine regions of the Confederate west. Mobility and firepower provided by the boats gave the Union a huge advantage. Railroads would become more important as the war went on and as the Federal were able to secure those lines, but in the early part of the war, the water transport system was key for the North.

    The Confederacy did try and place obstacles on the rivers – Fort Henry on the Tennessee, Fort Donelson on the Cumberland and Island #10 and Fort Pillow on the Mississippi. Fort Henry was never complete – and what was finished was poorly done – before the Federal gunboats pounded the water-level fort into submission. Fort Donelson was set higher above the water and Grant’s army was needed to reduce that fort. Island 10 was under siege by a separate army under General John Pope at the time of Shiloh. The Confederate failure at Shiloh would doom the defense of this fort. The fort was soon abandoned so the defenders would not be cut off situated so far to the north of supporting Confederate lines after Shiloh. The Confederate defeat at Shiloh and withdrawal from Island #10 also meant the Confederates had to give up Memphis and all of western Tennessee.

    Here, at Shiloh, steamboats provided mobility to the Federal forces bringing troops and supplies upriver, evacuating the wounded, as needed. The gunboats Tyler and Lexington were cladded with timber-reinforced siding serving as armor. They served as artillery platforms with their large nine inch naval guns, by far the largest guns used here at the battle. The two boats cruised in the river opposite the mouth of the Dill Branch ravine, lobbing their large rounds up the ravine. The noise was scarier than the actual effect of the guns, but the gunboats were another factor in convincing the Confederates that an early evening attack on Grant’s “Last Line” was not how they really wanted to end their long day on 6 April.

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    CAVALRY UNITS

    by mtncorg Written May 26, 2014
    Monument to U.S. Regular Cavalry
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    As noted on the Illinois Cavalry monument, “‘The nature of this battle was such that cavalry could not be used in front. I therefore formed ours into line in the rear.’ Grant”. There are four separate monuments dedicated to Federal cavalry units with three of them placed near the Visitor Center along the Pittsburgh Landing Road.

    Illinois puts all of her cavalry regiments on one memorial nearby commemorating various Illinois cavalry battalions and companies that served throughout the battlefield. The 5th Ohio Cavalry – 1st, 2nd and 3rd battalions – monument is a little farther west along the Pittsburgh Landing Road. Again, the first two battalions were placed in reserve behind Hurlbut’s division fighting in the Cotton Field area while the 3rd battalion was north of Snake Creek on guard. The 2nd Indiana Cavalry monument is next to the Illinois Cavalry monument. The 2nd Indiana didn’t reach Pittsburgh Landing until the afternoon of 7 April as the battle ended. The regiment also erected another monument at Chickamauga.

    The monument to the Company C 2nd U.S. Cavalry/Company I 4th U.S. Cavalry is harder to find. It is north of Tennessee Route 22 above the intersection with the Pittsburgh Landing Road. Here, the two companies held off various attempts by Rebel cavalry to penetrate to the Hamburg-Savannah Road, which they needed to keep open for the arrival of Lew Wallace’s reinforcing division. The monument’s approach is also the best to use for reaching the hard-to-find one of the 14th Missouri/66th Illinois Birgie’s Sharp Shooters.

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    HASCALL’S BRIGADE

    by mtncorg Updated May 25, 2014
    17th Indiana - Wilder's Regiment
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    The brigade of Colonel Milo S. Hascall did not reach the battlefield of Shiloh until 8 April. Hascall was a Wet pointer – class of 1852 – but was practicing law in Indiana before the war. He was the original colonel of the 17th Indiana and originally saw action in West Virginia under George B. McClellan.

    Both Indiana regiments have erected monuments here – the 17th Indiana commanded by Colonel John. T. Wilder, about whom much more would be heard from at Chickamauga; and the 58th Indiana led by Colonel Henry Carr – he would resign in June 1862 being replaced by the cousin of Don Carlos Buell, George P. Buell who would go on to brigade command at Stones River, Chickamauga and beyond. Both the 17th Indiana and the 58th Indiana also have monuments at Chickamauga.

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    GARFIELD’S BRIGADE

    by mtncorg Updated May 25, 2014
    64th Ohio monument at Pittsburgh Landing
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    The next brigade of Thomas J. Wood’s division to reach Pittsburgh Landing was the green brigade commanded by Brigadier General James A. Garfield. They arrived just as the battle was over led by Wood, himself, to the sound of the guns, as per Grant’s orders. The brigade did undergo some artillery fire, but saw no action. They did go forward on 8 April to verify that the Rebels had indeed gone; recovering some of the remnants left behind by Beauregard’s wounded army.

    James Garfield’s history is a storied one. He was Horatio Alger’s “Self-Made Man”. When parents tell their children that they, too, might grow up to be President one day, it is Garfield of whom such thoughts start. For more on Garfield, see my tips in Ohio including his home in Mentor, grave in Cleveland and the college that shaped him in Hiram. Suffice it to say; that Garfield, a newly promoted brigadier general, was a bit frustrated getting to the battle late. It would not be long before malaria would force him to give up command of his brigade and return to Ohio to recover. Once home, he found he was the Republican candidate for Congress from his district – an election he handily won. Before he could actually take his seat in Congress, he served on a court-martial that found General Fitz-John Porter guilty of failing to support Pope at Second Manassas. Garfield was then ordered to Murfreesboro, Tennessee where he became the chief of staff for William Rosecrans. His actions at Chickamauga would propel him to the Presidency.

    The regimental monuments of the 64th and 65th Ohio are erected at Pittsburgh Landing on the north side of the Pittsburgh Landing Road. The 13th Michigan is remembered on the Michigan State Monument on the northwest corner of Cloud field. All of the regiments have more monuments erected at Chickamauga: the 64th and 65th Ohio as a part of Harker’s brigade and the 13th Michigan as a part of Buell’s brigade.

    One of Garfield’s regiments that reached the battlefield even later was the 51st Indiana commanded by Colonel Abel Streight – a book publisher before the war. This is their only Civil War regimental monument. With Garfield as chief of staff of the Army of the Cumberland (earlier Ohio) in early 1863, Streight had his old brigade chief get the ok from the army commander Rosecrans to allow his regiment to form the core of a Federal deep strike similar to what Morgan and Forrest were doing on the Confederate side. Mounted on mules – not enough horse to go around – Streight’s men reached deep in to Rebel territory but eventually were surrounded by the more mobile and cavalry-savvy Forrest and forced to surrender. There was no 51st Indiana at Chickamauga.

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    WAGNER’S BRIGADE

    by mtncorg Written May 25, 2014
    15th Indiana south of Review Field
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    George D. Wagner was a prosperous farmer in Indiana before the war. As a Republican he was elected to the Indiana House of Representatives in 1856, moving to the State Senate two years later. With the war, Wagner helped raise the 15th Indiana which saw its initial action in West Virginia. By the time of Shiloh, Wagner was commanding a brigade – a position at which he would continue until after the Atlanta command when he would lead a division. After a controversial performance at the Battle of Franklin, he would leave the army and die at the young age of 39 in 1869.

    Here at Shiloh, Wagner’s brigade was the first of Thomas J. Wood’s division to reach the field around 2 pm. They filed onto the south edge of the Review Field just as the Confederate line was in full retreat. A few volleys were fired and the men captured some 40 prisoners suffering only four casualties before the fighting was over. The one Kentucky regiment – the 24th Kentucky – is remembered on the Kentucky State Monument east of Cloud Field. The three Indiana regiments all erected monuments on the south side of the Hamburg-Purdy Road – south edge of Review Field – where the brigade helped the Confederate army on its way back to Corinth. Unlike most of the other regiments of the Army of the Ohio, Wagner’s regiments do not have monuments at Chickamauga since General Rosecrans had kept Wagner’s men back in Chattanooga as a garrison while the rest of the army was chasing after Braxton Bragg. They did play a key role in the ensuing victory on Missionary Ridge, but the regiments only have monuments here at Shiloh.

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    GIBSON’S BRIGADE

    by mtncorg Updated May 25, 2014
    15th Ohio regimental monument
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    The brigade of Colonel William H. Gibson didn’t reach the battlefield until noon on 7 April, but they were quickly inserted into the fight by divisional command Alexander McCook. They came in on the left of Kirk’s brigade, driving the Rebel line across the Hamburg-Purdy Road. The last Confederate counterattack led by Preston Pond’s men – with other disorganized detachments added on – briefly threatened Gibson’s left flank, but Grant called in Veatch’s men who had been in reserve and they, in turn, caught the Rebels on their right flank. With Veatch, Kirk, Gibson and Rousseau’s men – now resupplied with ammunition – plus, Colonel George D. Wagner’s fresh brigade coming into line, as well, Beauregard ordered a general retreat around 2 pm.

    Gibson had been a Whig abolitionist lawyer before the war. He had been an early organizer of the Republican Party in Ohio and was elected State Treasure in 1856. He had been forced to resign when coming into office he found the treasury short several hundred thousand dollars. He tried to give his predecessor – a relative by marriage – a chance to make up the money but the public became aware of the problem and he was accused of covering up the affair.

    With the war, he helped raise the 49th Ohio becoming the regimental colonel. At Shiloh, he substituted for a sick brigade commander, R.W. Johnson. After the battle, he went back to the 49th and would lead that regiment throughout the war. He was temporarily a brigade commander when August Willich – commanding the 32nd Indiana at Shiloh – was captured at Stone River. At Shiloh, three horses were unlucky enough to be shot out from underneath Gibson and he received a bayonet wound. He would return to the law after the war and become a sought-out speaker.

    One regiment that did not have a good day at Shiloh 7 April was the 32nd Indiana. The regiment was mostly German under the command of Colonel August Willich, a former Prussian officer who had become a far left wing leader of a Free Corps unit in the failed German revolution of 1848-1849. He came to the U.S. afterwards and had been working as an editor of a German newspaper in Cincinnati before the war. Originally associated with the 9th Ohio – Die Neuner – he was commissioned as the colonel of the 32nd Indiana – the First German – during the winter of 1861-1862.

    Here at Shiloh, he had the regiment come onto the field in column formation instead of line. What might have worked for Napoleon did not work here as his men were hit by enfilading fire routing the regiment. The regiment was lost to the brigade and ended up bivouacking after the battle by itself.
    Willich went on to command the brigade. Captured at Stones River, he spent four months at Libby Prison in Richmond. Exchanged in May 1863, he returned to brigade command through Chickamauga and further until suffering a severe wound at Resaca which forced him to leave the field. Postwar, he returned to Cincinnati though he did offer his services to Prussia during the Franco-Prussian War in 1870. The last thing Prussia needed was an old Communist and they declined.

    Thomas Jefferson Harrison led the 39th Indiana at Shiloh as he would until after Chickamauga - with the exception of Stones River – when the regiment became the 8th Indiana Cavalry.

    Albert M. Blackman led the 49th Ohio at Shiloh. He would later be the colonel of the 27th U.S. Colored Troops and be involved with the fall of Fort Fisher outside of Wilmington, North Carolina.

    The regimental monuments of Gibson’s brigade are organized along a line northwest-southeast parallel to that of Kirk’s brigade: 32nd Indiana on the north side of Corinth Road just south of the Water Oaks Pond; the 15th Ohio some forty yards southeast followed by the 39th Indiana and the 49th Ohio which are on the north side of the Hamburg-Purdy Road just to the west of the Review Field. Each regiment also has a monument at Chickamauga. In addition, a soldier of the 32nd Indiana erected a monument in 1862 in memory of the regiment’s first action at Munfordville, Kentucky. This monument – the first Civil War monument in existence – was moved to the Cave Hill National Cemetery in Louisville after the war, but now is in the lobby of the Frazier History Museum also in Louisville.

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    KIRK’S BRIGADE

    by mtncorg Updated May 25, 2014
    29th Indiana of Kirk's brigade
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    Edward Kirk was a successful lawyer and businessman from Illinois before t he war. He raised the 34th Illinois at the onset of the war and would eventually rise to brigade command before Shiloh. At Shiloh, Kirk was wounded in the shoulder forcing him home for an extended period of recovery. He would return to brigade command in time to be severely wounded and captured at Stones River. Exchanged shortly after, he would return to Illinois for a final time dying midsummer 1863 from his wounds. Brigade command this day would next fall to Colonel Frederick Stumbaugh of the 77th Pennsylvania who would lead the brigade until he became ill. Forced to return home, he would recover well enough to join the staff of General Darius Couch and serve at Gettysburg before his health forced him to resign in October 1863. Stumbaugh would be elected to the Pennsylvania legislature after the war before moving to Kansas where he became a member of that State’s legislature, as well in 1877.

    Here, the brigade formed up behind Rousseau’s on 7 April. They relieved the forward command in action near the Water Oaks Pond in Woolf Field. The battle line formed had the regiments aligned with the 34th Illinois on the left, 30th Indiana in the center and the 29th Indiana on the right. The 77th Pennsylvania was detached to the left to help Gibson’s brigade fighting in the west side of Review Field. On its first advance, the 34th Illinois marched straight through the pond where they ran head on into a last counterattack by the brigade of S.A.M. Woods. The 34th was pushed back into the woods east of Woolf Field, but Gibson’s fresh oncoming brigade was thrown in and with Sherman’s men firing from the north side of Woolf Field, the Rebel attack was repulse.

    Commanders of both the 34th Illinois – Major Charles N. Levanway who was substituting this day for Colonel Amos Bosworth who had developed a severe cold after falling into water while supervising a bridging operation; and the 30th Indiana – Colonel Sion Bass – were killed during the fighting. Bosworth was laying in bed that day in Savannah and doctors had a hard time keeping him bed with the sounds of battle clearly audible. His condition worsened after the battle and he died a couple of weeks afterwards. Levanway had his head shot off by a cannonball while Bass was hit in the upper thigh by a musket ball dying a week later. The subsequent commander of the 30th Indiana, Colonel Joseph Dodge – a school teacher before the war – would take over brigade command when Kirk went down again at Stones River. He would lead the brigade at Chickamauga until the reorganization of the Army of the Cumberland after that battle left him out of a job. He served as a president of the court-martial for Tennessee for most of the next year before mustering out of the army in August 1864.
    The 29th Indiana was led by Lieutenant Colonel David M. Dunn at Shiloh according to the regimental monument, but the same Indiana commission responsible for drafting the information on the monument also note in the same report that Colonel John F. Miller was present at the battle, too. Miller would go on to brigade command early in 1864 and be succeeded by Dunn. The regiment would also be involved at both Stones River and at Chickamauga. Miller was considered one of the young bright stars of the Federal army. He would be wounded leading another brigade on 2 January 1863 across Stones River to repulse Breckinridge’s late attack. In the ensuing Tullahoma campaign, he lost his left eye, taking him out of the field for a year before he saw his last serious action at the Battle of Nashville. He would eventually go on to become a U.S. senator from the State of California. Dunn would be captured at Stones River, being exchanged some five months later and again lead the 29th Indiana.

    The monuments of the brigade are aligned northwest to southeast from the 29th Indiana and the 30th Indiana located along the side road coming off Sherman Road on the north side of Woolf Field to the west – a Confederate burial trench is opposite the 29th monument; the 34th Illinois is next just north of Water Oaks Pond in Woolf Field; the 77th Pennsylvania is found along the north side of the Hamburg-Purdy Road near the western edge of Review Field. All three regiments have erected monuments at Chickamauga, as well.

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    ROUSSEAU’S BRIGADE

    by mtncorg Updated May 25, 2014
    U.S. Regulars of Rousseau remembered Duncan Field
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    Brigadier General Lovell H. Rousseau was an important political figure in the antebellum era in Kentucky and Indiana. The family had originally owned slaves but hard financial times had forced their sale. Rousseau was a self-made man after the death of his father when he was only 15 years of age. He became a lawyer in Louisville but setting up practice in Indiana with his brother and another partner – both Lovell and his brother married daughters of their partner – in 1841. Rousseau went on to be elected to the Indiana House of Representatives as a Whig in 1844. With the Mexican War, he raised a company of volunteers serving as a captain. Returning to Indianan, he won a seat in the Indiana Senate before moving back to Louisville. He served in the Kentucky Senate for a year before resigning in 1861 to raise volunteers to help keep Kentucky in the Union. Initially, he was the colonel of the 5th Kentucky though he was quickly promoted to brigadier general and led his brigade here as a part of Alexander M. McCook’s division.

    The brigade formed to the right of Crittenden’s division – Boyle’s brigade, in particular – at about 8 am on the morning of 7 April: 6th Indiana, 1st Ohio, 1st Battalions of the 19th, 15th and 16th US Regulars, left to right with the 5th Kentucky in reserve and the 15th Michigan temporarily attached. The brigade of Trabue was already engaged with Boyle’s men when Rousseau came in through the northern part of Duncan Field overlapping Trabue’s left flank causing a quick retreat on the Confederate’s part, which was the beginning of the end for the Confederate line this day. With Trabue gone, Rousseau advanced all the way – crushing the small brigade of Russell on the way – to Woolf Field where he ran into desperate Confederate resistance around the Water Oaks Pond that had also been holding up Sherman and McClernand’s men. Rousseau’s men took a short break to replenish their ammunition – Kirk’s men replaced them – before resuming their place in pushing the Rebels back further. The 1st Ohio was one of the few Federal units to go forward to pursue the retreating Rebel army, but they soon gave up the chase as Beauregard took his wounded army back to Corinth.

    Rousseau would go on to become a major general and a divisional commander in the Army of the Cumberland until November 1863 when he was put in command of the District of Nashville. After the war, he was elected as a Unionist from Kentucky to the U.S. House of Representatives. In 1866, he and Iowa congressman Josiah Grinnell – a former abolitionist – ran afoul of each other and insults led Rousseau to using his cane on Grinnell – similar to the antebellum incident between South Carolina congressman Preston Brooks and Massachusetts senator Charles Sumner. This time, instead of ignoring the action, Rousseau was reprimanded and resigned his seat. The people of Kentucky voted him back, however and he served the remainder of his term. Leaving Congress, Rousseau returned to the army as a brigadier general. Assigned to duty in Alaska, he was very helpful in the transfer of Alaska from Russia to the U.S. in 1867. He was transferred to Louisiana to replace Philip Sheridan in July 1868 and died six months later.

    Brigade notes: Colonel Harvey Buckley led the 5th Kentucky here at Shiloh. He had been appointed lieutenant colonel behind Rousseau when the regiment had been raise in October 1861. With Rousseau’s promotion, Buckley would lead the regiment at Shiloh, Perryville, and Stones River resigning at the end of January 1863. A year later, he helped raise the 54th Kentucky Mounted Infantry and would lead that unit for the rest of the war.

    The 1st Ohio was initially raise as a three month volunteer unit and participated as a part of Schenck’s brigade at the First Battle of Bull Run/Manassas which played a peripheral reserve role on the east side of the Stone Bridge. Many of the men re-enlisted when the regiment was revised as a three year unit and they served under Colonel Alexander McCook who was their divisional commander here at Shiloh. There would be many battles ahead for the regiment with maybe its brightest day coming at Missionary Ridge when the 1st Ohio planted their colors first atop the ridge – a regimental monument proudly exists there. The regiment mustered out in the fall of 1864 with those re-enlisting becoming part of the 18th Ohio.

    The Regular army battalions were under the command of Major John H. King. He had served in the army since 1838 and seen action in the Mexican War. Stationed in Texas at the start of the war, he brought nine companies north. He would lead the regulars through the Battle of Stone River where he was wounded. Appointed a brigadier general of volunteers, he led a brigade of regular troops at Chickamauga and eventually would command a division during the Atlanta campaign. He was brevetted as a major general in the Regular army towards the end of the war before reverting to the rank of colonel in the post war army. He would serve in that role commanding the 9th U.S. Infantry on the Western Frontier until his retirement in 1882.

    It is important to remember that even though units may have been part of the Regular army, the men serving were as green as those in the State volunteer regiments. Lincoln vastly increased the size of the antebellum army and most serving were new soldiers and quite possibly recent emigrants, as well.

    The other regiment of Rousseau’s brigade – the 6th Indiana – was led by Thomas T. Crittenden, a nephew of Kentucky senator John J. Crittenden and cousin of both Confederate general George B. Crittenden and Federal general Thomas L. Crittenden. Thomas had grown up in Texas, but was practicing law in Missouri at the outset of the Mexican War. Serving as a lieutenant, he returned and relocated to Indiana. With the Civil War, he became the regimental colonel for the 6th Indiana, leading them into frays in West Virginia. Reorganizing the regiment as a three year unit, he led them here at Shiloh, becoming a brigadier general later in April. During the Perryville campaign, he was given command of the Federal garrison at Murfreesboro, Tennessee where he and his entire command were captured by Nathan Bedford Forrest 13 July 1862. Exchanged in October 1862, he was eventually named to replace William Woodruff as a brigade commander in the Army of the Cumberland – Woodruff had hurt himself at Stones River falling from his horse – but he would resign in May 1863, his career over as a result of no confidence from those who served under him. The brigade would be taken over by his successor at the 6th Indiana, Philemon Baldwin, who would fall on the first day at Chickamauga 19 September 1863.

    The monuments of the brigade are arrayed along a north-south line running from the woods just north of Duncan Field – here is the monument to the Regulars – and then coming to the monuments to the 1st Ohio – north edge of the field – and the 6th Indiana – on the north edge of the Corinth Road opposite the monument of the 2nd Iowa. The 5th Kentucky is remembered on the Kentucky State monument east of Cloud Field. Both the 1st Ohio and the 6th Indiana have erected monuments at Chickamauga.

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    SMITH’S BRIGADE

    by mtncorg Written May 25, 2014
    13th Ohio deep in the woods west of Wicker Field
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    William Sooy Smith graduated sixth in his class at West Point in 1853. Resigning his commission the next year to take a job with the Illinois Central Railroad, he went on to start his own engineering company. With the war, he joined the 13th Ohio and was made the colonel shortly afterwards. Just before Shiloh, he became a brigade commander and would go on to eventually commanding a division during the Vicksburg campaign. Following that, he would become a cavalry commander in 1864 before resigning his place in the army due to arthritis. Life after the war saw Smith back in civil engineering before retiring to Medford, Oregon.

    The brigade formed on the right of Nelson’s division with the 13th Ohio on the left and the 26th Kentucky on the right and the 14th Wisconsin temporarily assigned to the brigade further to the right. The 11th Kentucky was kept in reserve. Fighting in woods around the Sunken Road, Smith’s men went back and forth in the heavy brush that had helped federal defenders the day before. Eventually, by 2 pm, they helped to push the Rebels out of the Davis Wheat Field and the general Confederate retreat began.

    Two of Smith’s regiments being Kentuckian are remembered together on the Kentucky State Monument east of Cloud Field. The monument of the 13th Ohio is hidden in the woods between Duncan and Wicker Field. The 14th Wisconsin placed a unique monument along the Eastern Corinth Road where J.D. Putnam fell in the afternoon fighting. His comrades buried him beneath a tree inscribing his name on the base of the trunk. When the time came in the post war years to remember where the different units had fought on the battlefield, the tree was found. It had been chopped down, but the stump still stood with the inscription still legible. The men of the 14th Wisconsin then placed this more permanent reminder. The 13th Ohio also erected a monument at Chickamauga where they had very rough fight.

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    BRUCE’S BRIGADE

    by mtncorg Written May 25, 2014
    Bruce's brigade marker north of Bloody Pond
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    The men of Colonel Sanders D. Bruce were all from Kentucky – 1st, 2nd and 20th Kentucky. There are no separate regimental monuments. All are placed together on the Kentucky State Monument found just to the east of Cloud Field.

    Bruce’s men reached Pittsburgh Landing at around 6 pm on 6 April just as the last Confederate attack was ebbing away. They formed up on the right of Ammen’s brigade and the left of Hazen’s during the early morning of 7 April, holding the center of William “Bull” Nelson’s division together. They first engaged in Wicker Field and then fought a see-saw battle in Sarah Bell’s Cotton Field and the Peach Orchard before drawing back to the Sunken Road. They joined with the rest of the division pushing forward around 2 pm as the general Confederate retreat began.

    Sanders Bruce had been a captain in the State militia before the war becoming the colonel of the 20th Kentucky early in 1862. A month later, he was given command of a brigade in nelson’s division which would be a rocky road with Nelson placing Bruce in and out of arrest. Two months after Shiloh, Bruce suffered a stroke forcing him to resign from the army. He would, however, live on until 1902 moving to New York becoming a publishing expert on horse breeding.

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    AMMEN’S BRIGADE

    by mtncorg Written May 25, 2014

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    6th Ohio of Ammen's brigade
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    Jacob Ammen was a distinguished graduate of West Point in 1831 – he even helped teach at the Point for a couple of terms after he graduated. He served in the active army until 1837 – he was stationed at Charleston Harbor during the Nullification Crisis – when he resigned to teach mathematics at colleges in Kentucky, Missouri and Indiana. In 1855, Ammen took on a new career in civil engineering in Ripon, Ohio. With the war, he joined the 12th Ohio as a captain, but was soon made the colonel of the 24th Ohio. After action in West Virginia, the regiment became part of the Army of the Ohio and Ammen was promoted to brigade command. He would lead his brigade here and through the succeeding Corinth campaign being promoted eventually to division command. Ill health would then sideline him for much of the rest of the war.

    The man who would take over brigade command for Ammen was William Grose who led the 36th Indiana at Shiloh. Grose was a lawyer and a Republican politician before the war. He recruited and trained the 36th. At Shiloh, he would be slightly wounded and have a horse shot out from under him. He had a long career ahead of him as a brigade commander in the Army of the Ohio/Cumberland.

    Ammen’s brigade was the vanguard of Don Carlos Buell’s Army of the Ohio. Marching up the east bank of the Tennessee River from Savannah on 6 April, they crossed the river at Pittsburgh Landing at 5:30 pm. Pushing their way through the many Federals whose units had been disrupted during the long day’s fighting, Ammen’s men came forward to support the left end of Grant’s ‘last line’ resting above the Dill Branch ravine. Ammen had gotten the 36th Indiana and parts of the 24th Ohio into the line along with survivors of Stuart’s and Sweeny’s brigades among other skulkers who had regained their nerve – maybe slightly over 1,000 men on line – just as the Rebels launched their last attack of the day at 6 pm with the brigades of Jackson and Chalmers being easily repulsed.

    The Confederates withdrew during the evening and Ammen’s men joined the general Federal advance during the morning of 7 April forming the left of Buell’s now mostly reunited army. Ammen’s brigade marched through Cloud Field coming into line of battle between the Bloody Pond and into the woods to the east at around 11 am where McArthur and Stuart had used the ravines the day before to defend. Confederate counterattacks stalemated the situation until about 2 pm when the general Rebel retreat began. Ammen’s men were supported by the men of the 2nd and 14th Iowa of Tuttle’s brigade. This brigade would go on to many more battles as part of the Army of the Ohio/Cumberland with another set of regimental monuments in the woods of Chickamauga. Here, the brigade monuments are located in the woods east of the Bloody Pond where they fought in the late morning of 7 April: 6th Ohio, 24th Ohio and 36th Indiana – west to east.

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