Shiloh National Military Park Things to Do

  • Monument of the 55th Illinois Volunteer Infantry
    Monument of the 55th Illinois Volunteer...
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  • The Zouave 54th Ohio Monument
    The Zouave 54th Ohio Monument
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  • Original burial ground of the 55th IL and 54th OH
    Original burial ground of the 55th IL...
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    MARSH’S BRIGADE

    by mtncorg Written May 24, 2014
    20th Illinois - Marsh's regiment
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    Colonel C. Carroll Marsh had been given command of the 20th Illinois at the outset of the war as a result of his reputation as a part of the prewar Chicago Light Guard militia. He and his men had gone to southern Missouri and were a part of Colonel Joseph Plummer’s command at the Battle of Fredericktown.

    Soon afterwards, they were attached to the brigade of W.H.L. Wallace – 2nd brigade of John McClernand’s division – in time for the advance to Fort Henry and Fort Donelson. The 20th Illinois had been placed on the right of the Union line and was hard pressed during the fighting at Donelson though the counterattack of their regiment was responsible for momentarily stopping the Confederate breakout attempt.

    With the fall of Fort Donelson, Marsh was elevated to brigade command – Wallace had, in turn, taken over division command from C.F. Smith. Marsh’s all-Illinois brigade – 11th, 20th, 45th and 48th – formed up just after 8 am along the Corinth Road with the right at the crossroads and the left in the Review Field. Attacked on the left flank by the brigades of S.A.M. Wood and Stewart, they withstood the onrush from 10 to 11 am retreating some 700 yards and then further back to Jones Field. The brigade rallied around noon, and with others, counterattacked regaining their lost ground. After about two hours their attack had run out of steam and they were back in Jones Field, finally being withdrawn from the action to a position on the Hamburg-Savannah Road around 2:30 pm. Only three regiments strong by this time as the 11th Illinois was down to a captain and 80 men.

    On 7 April, as a part of McClernand’s division, Marsh’s men took part in the counterattack which regained all of the lost ground from the first day. Marsh would be transferred to John Logan’s division after the battle and be appointed brigadier general temporarily during the opening stages of the Vicksburg campaign. He resigned 22 April 1863 after his promotion was not upheld by the Senate.

    An aside regarding the 48th Illinois; they were commanded by Colonel Isham Haynie who was an original organizer of the regiment which was also known as the Pharaohs since the regiment was recruited from southern Illinois, an area nicknamed Egypt. Haynie had fought in the Mexican War before returning to law and politics. A Democrat, Haynie was a colleague of both Stephen Douglas and, more importantly, John Logan. Logan and Haynie fell out when it came time to command a regiment they had raised together – the 31st Illinois. Haynie eventually got the 48th Illinois which he had led at Fort Donelson. At Shiloh, Haynie was badly wounded during the early fighting. Recuperating back in Illinois, he barely lost an election to gain Logan’s old congressional seat by 700 votes out of 12,000 cast. He returned briefly to the army as a brigade commander in Logan’s division but soon returned to Illinois to become the Adjutant General for the State. With Governor Richard Ogelsby, he happened to be in Washington D.C. the day of Lincoln’s assassination. Lincoln had seen the two walking across the White House lawn and invited them in for an hour of talk before dinner. He even invited them along to Ford’s Theater, but they had made earlier plans. With the assassination later in the evening, the pair went to and was admitted in to the President’s room remaining there until Lincoln died. Haynie was a part of the State delegation that brought Lincoln’s body back to Springfield. He outlived Lincoln by only three years in 1867 at the age of 44.

    The brigade monuments are found west-east just south of the Corinth Road: the 11th and 20th Illinois are on the immediate south side of the Illinois State monument while the 48th and 45th Illinois are in the woods to the east between the State monument and the Review Field.

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    RAITH’S BRIGADE

    by mtncorg Written May 24, 2014
    17th Illinois of Raith's brigade
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    Julius Raith came with his family from Germany in 1836 to Illinois – he was 15. His career as a flour millwright was interrupted during the Mexican War when he served as a captain earning distinction for his service. With the onset of the Civil War, Raith became the colonel of the 43rd Illinois Infantry in September 1861. The 43rd Illinois was assigned to the 3rd brigade of McClernand’s division arriving just after the victory at Ft Donelson.

    With the sounds of battle at hand on 6 April, Raith had his men’s’ tents struck and took command of the brigade with the absence of the regular commander who was back in Illinois on furlough. Raith’s regiment was the only one of the brigade ready for the storm that quickly broke over them with the collapse of the 53rd and then the 57th Ohio. The 49th Illinois had only enough time to gather up their guns. Supporting Sherman’s left, Raith’s men kept the Confederates at bay until Prentiss’ division fell apart around 9 am.

    Johnston directed five brigades to attack northwest behind Sherman’s position hitting Raith in the flank. Falling back to the Hamburg-Purdy Road, Raith’s men reunited with McClernand’s other brigades, but this line quickly fell apart, too. It was here that Raith was hit in the leg just above the knee. Left on the field, his men retreated. He would lie on the ground for 24 hours before being recovered after the successful counterattack of the following day. Evacuated by steamer, his leg was amputated but four days later – 11 April – Raith died of tetanus.

    Brigade command next evolved to Lieutenant Colonel Enos Wood of the 17th Illinois. The men were forced back along with the rest of McClernand’s division, counterattacking along with Sherman’s survivors from just south of Jones Field around noon. Finally around 3 pm, they were forced to retreat, low on ammunition and with no reinforcements in sight. They pulled back to the east side of Tilghman Branch ending the day at the west end of Grant’s “Last Stand” line on the north side of Dill Branch ravine.

    On day two of the battle, along with the rest of McClernand’s division, they attacked on the left of Sherman in concert with Lew Wallace’s division. By the end of the day, they had regained their original camps.

    Colonel Raith’s mortuary monument is found at the crossroads of the Corinth and Hamburg-Purdy Roads. His 43rd Illinois monument is across the road on the south side while the monument of the 49th Illinois is just to the east of Raith’s monument. The other two regiments of the brigade have placed their monuments in the woods just south and east of the Shiloh Church – the 17th Illinois and the 29th Illinois.

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    BUCKLAND’S BRIGADE

    by mtncorg Written May 24, 2014
    70th Ohio faced against the 2nd Tennessee
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    Ralph P. Buckland was a lawyer from Fremont, Ohio where he also served as mayor and as a State senator. One of his law partners for three years in the late 1840’s was one young Rutherford B. Hayes, a friendship that would stand Buckland well in the post-war years. At the onset of the war, Buckland became the colonel of the 72nd Ohio and the regiment was attached to Sherman’s division within the Army of the Mississippi prior to the Shiloh campaign. Sherman made Buckland the commander of his 4th brigade and Lieutenant Herman Canfield took over the 72nd.

    Buckland was quick to get his men out into a battle line on the morning of 6 April. Early in the action, Canfield was mortally wounded and Buckland took over direct command of his old regiment having confidence that his two other regiments were in good shape with their commanders. The brigade held the line until about 10 am when with Hildebrand’s troops to their left scattered, the brigade withdrew to the Hamburg-Purdy Road a quarter mile to the north. Hardly had they reached the road when continued Rebel pressure forced Sherman to order Buckland – who had now been joined with the troops of McDowell’s brigade from the right – to retreat further forming on the right of McClernand’s division.

    Counterattacking out of Jones Field around noon, they knocked the by-now organizationally mixed Confederate left all the way back to the north part of Woolf Field before Confederate reinforcements brought things to a standstill. For the next hour and a half, both sides traded blows before lacking ammunition and reinforcements, plus occupying an exposed position that got more so as time went on, Sherman and McClernand withdrew to Jones Field and then to the east side of Tilghmann Branch ravine. Confederates from Pond’s brigade and Wharton’s Texas Rangers threw some last attacks at the Federal right around 4 pm but they were easily repulsed. The brigade – Sherman’s only brigade to maintain its organization throughout the day’s fighting – overnighted in the fields near where the Pittsburgh Landing Road comes in off of Tennessee Route 22 near the Headquarters marker for McArthur’s Brigade. From here on the next day, the brigade attacked over Tilghman Branch and on across Jones field with Lew Wallace’s division on their right. Waiting for Buell’s men to attack on the left, the attack on the Confederate right resumed around 10 am inexorably driving the Rebels back over ground they had won at such a high cost the day before. Buckland’s men advance on the right of Rosseau’s attack through the Water Oak Pond around 3 pm driving the Confederates back to Shiloh Church and convincing Beauregard that it was time to get what was left of his army off the battlefield. Buckland’s men were back to their original camps.

    Sherman reported after the battle that Buckland had handled his brigade well “a cool, judicious, intelligent gentleman needing only confidence and experience to become a good commander.” Buckland would continue to serve as a brigade commander under Sherman until early in 1865 when he resigned from the army to serve in the U.S. congress for 4 years. He then resumed his law practice and was involved with railroads. His home is in Fremont, Ohio just down the street from Rutherford Hayes’ Spiegel Grove.

    A trail moves southwest off from the Corinth Road across from the Shiloh Church next to the monument of Taylor’s Battery B 1st Illinois Light Artillery – commanded at Shiloh by Captain Samuel Barrett. Through some woods you come to the monument of the 70th Ohio standing next to that of the 2nd Tennessee. As you continue due west, you come across monuments of the 48th Ohio and the 72nd Ohio deep in the woods. Next to the monument to the 72nd Ohio is a marker noting the original burial ground of some of the 15 men of the 72nd who died here.

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    HILDEBRAND’S BRIGADE

    by mtncorg Written May 24, 2014
    53rd Ohio remembered in Rea Field
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    To the west of Prentiss’ division were the men of Sherman, with Jesse Hildebrand commanding the all-Ohio 3rd brigade on the left. The regiment farthest in front was the 53rd Ohio camped in Rea Field. Commanding officer Colonel Jesse Appler sent word to Sherman that he had to get his regiment in line of battle because of the activity on his front early in the morning of 6 April. Sherman replied that “you must be badly scared over there.” The 53rd Ohio was also known as the “Long Roll Regiment” – the long roll was the drum call that called a regiment into a battle line. Appler was a very nervous individual and had called his men out onto a battle line several times in the previous days. Sherman had become quite irritated with him and after one episode he told Appler, “Take your damned regiment back to Ohio!” On this day, however, Sherman rode over and changed his mind when he saw Appler’s situation. Ordered to hold it ground the 53rd Ohio was supported by the 57th and 77th Ohio further to the north on the right. Two Confederate regiments – 6th Mississippi and 23rd Tennessee – came up out of the ravine on the west side of the field into a hail of bullets and artillery bursts – Waterhouse’s Battery E just north of Rea Spring and Barrett’s Batter B next to Shiloh Church. The 23rd Tennessee broke under the fire while the 6th Mississippi tried two more attacks leaving 300 of its 425 dead or wounded in Rea Field. Just as his regiment was winning the battle, Appler broke down crying out “Retreat, save yourselves!” and in the words of one of his men, he ‘travelled’. Some of the regiment would reform again behind Raith’s brigade, but after being ordered forward Appler would panic again and flee. This time most of the regiment would join him in his flight ending up among the mob at Pittsburgh Landing done for the day.

    Jesse Hildebrand had operated stage coach lines before the war and had originally commanded the 77th Ohio before being elevated to brigade command. His other regiments continued to fight on even with the retreat of the 53rd alongside Raith’s brigade which had been brought forward as a reinforcement at Shiloh Church, but as more Rebel brigades came forward and with the collapse of Prentiss’ division to the left, his brigade began to give way around 9:30 am and Sherman’s left flank was irreparably turned. One artillerist reported that Hildebrand “sat down on a long near me and cried like a child at the cowardice of his men whom he was unable to rally.” He would finish the battle appointing himself to the staff of John McClernand. After Shiloh, Hildebrand would go on to command the Federal prison camp at Alton, Illinois where he would die of pneumonia 18 April 1863.

    The monument of the 53rd Ohio is in the middle of Rea Field while the 57th Ohio and 77th Ohio are across Peabody Road in the woods to the northwest. Battery E’s monument is near the 57th while Battery B’s monument is across the Sherman Road on the west side of the Shiloh Church.

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    MILLER’S BRIGADE

    by mtncorg Written May 24, 2014

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    Second position of 18th Missouri in Spain Field
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    Madison Miller was another Missouri railroad man. He organized the 1st Missouri Light Artillery and became the commanding officer at the onset of the war. After distinguishing himself at the Federal defeat at Wilson’s Creek – August 1861 – he went on to become the colonel of the 18th Missouri Infantry in February 1962 after the original commander, W. James Morgan, had been relieved of command for shooting Confederate prisoners out of hand – the 18th Missouri was originally known as Morgan’s Rangers.

    Given command of the second brigade of Prentiss’ division, his brigade took the field on the south side of Spain Field early on the morning of 6 April. Attacked there by Confederates of Brigadier General Adley Gladden’s brigade, the men held out giving as much as they took, but more Confederate brigades came onto the scene eventually flanking Miller’s men and the brigade dissolved around 9:30 am. Some of the men would find their way into the fighting at the Hornet’s Nest along the Sunken Road directly under Prentiss later during the day and it was here that Miller would fall prisoner – along with Lieutenant Colonel Isaac Pratt who was leading the 18th Missouri - along with his division commander.

    Exchanged later, Miller would briefly command a brigade again receiving a brevet promotion to brigadier general of U.S. volunteers for his service at Shiloh. He returned to the railroads after the war, as well as real estate.

    Here on the north edge of Spain Field – a position that the brigade slowly retreated toward – you can find the monument of the 61st Illinois – the 18th Missouri and 18th Wisconsin are remembered on their State monuments. Colonel James Alban fell leading the 18th Wisconsin. His successor, James Aldon would lead the 18th Wisconsin on through battles at Corinth, Vicksburg and at Missionary Ridge before resigning early in 1864. He eventually became a two term congressman from Wisconsin starting in 1876. The 61st Illinois was the only regiment to maintain its integrity following the early morning and would represent a good portion of the 500 or so men under Prentiss’ command at the Hornet’s Nest – they would augmented by another 575 men of the 23rd Missouri. Miller had another regiment, the 15th Michigan, which arrived early in the morning of 6 April, but they showed up with no ammunition only bayonets so Miller sent them back to the Landing.

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    PEABODY’S BRIGADE

    by mtncorg Written May 24, 2014

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    The marker for Peabody's 25th Missouri
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    Everett Peabody was a Harvard graduate who came out west to St Joseph, Missouri to work in the railroad industry. With the onset of war, he helped raise the 13th Missouri Infantry becoming the regiment’s colonel. They were part of a Federal force that was forced to surrender at the Battle of Lexington – September 1861 – when the 3,500 Federals were overwhelmed by Sterling Price’s 15,000. Peabody was among the Union wounded hit twice during the fighting. He was taken prisoner along with everyone else and a new 13th Missouri was raised while he was away. Eventually, Peabody was exchanged in December 1861 and he rebuilt his lost regiment now as the 25th Missouri. The new regiment was ordered to join Brigadier General Benjamin Prentiss’ division in March 1862 at Pittsburgh Landing where Prentiss mad Peabody the commander of his first brigade. His command consisted of the 12th Michigan, the 16th Wisconsin, the 21st Missouri and his 25th Missouri. Only his regiment had seen action before Shiloh.

    The divisions of Prentiss and Sherman were the two occupying the most forward positions on the battlefields – the other divisions were scattered back into the rear towards Pittsburgh Landing. Union pickets noted increased activity in the woods in front of their positions during the night of 5 April but both division commanders dismissed the reports. Peabody did not, however, and sent out a patrol from the 25th Missouri and 12th Michigan under the command of Major James Edwin Powell. The patrol ran promptly into the oncoming massed Confederate ranks and the Battle of Shiloh was on. Peabody’s men had managed to give a little warning to the rest of Grant’s army.

    The regiments of Peabody’s brigade had a very hard time of it in their first fight facing first against the Confederate brigade of S.A.M. Wood. Both the commander and his successor at the 16th Wisconsin were wounded; Colonel Benjamin Allen would be forced to resign from the army because of his wounds and Colonel Cassiair Fairchild would eventually die from his in 1868. Colonel David Moore leading the 25th Missouri was shot three times, losing his right leg below the knee. He would be back with his regiment at the Battles of Iuka and Corinth in October 1862 however. Peabody suffered three wounds himself in the early going when, rallying his men, he was hit in the face by a shell that killed him instantly – Major Powell would also die early in the fight. The Peabody monument marks the spot where he was killed. His body was buried on the battlefield but later exhumed and moved to his native Massachusetts. With Peabody’s death and the brigade becoming flanked by ever increasing Confederate numbers, the brigade fell apart opening up the Federal center and leading to the fall of Sherman’s neighboring division on the right.

    There are no individual regimental monuments remembering the actions the brigade. Each of the regiments is noted on their respective State monuments: Missouri, Michigan and Wisconsin. Only the mortuary monument for Peabody exists to remind the casual visitor of the actions of the brigade.

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    ruggles battery

    by doug48 Updated Jan 10, 2012

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    ruggles batteries
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    the ruggles battery is stop four on the auto tour. when confederate infantry attacks on the hornet's nest failed confederate general daniel ruggles concentrated eleven batteries of artillery to bombard this position allowing his infantry to encircle and capture union general benjamin prentiss and 2,100 union troops.

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    shiloh visitor center

    by doug48 Updated Aug 8, 2011

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    shiloh battlefield visitor center

    your first stop on a tour of shiloh is the battlefield visitor center. at the visitor center you can get a map of the battlefield and pay for the auto tour fee. see the attached web site for admission and times.

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    grant's last line

    by doug48 Updated Aug 8, 2011

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    union line
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    the following things to do tips are a virtual tour of the shiloh battlefield using the park map. the first stop on the auto tour is grant's last line. the artillery batteries along this ridge marks the final position of the union line on april 6 th. on april 7 after grant was reinforced by don carlos buell and lew wallace's forces and he initiated a union counter attack from this point. general lew wallace is an interesting character in u. s. history. during the civil war wallace was considered a mediocre general and did not contribute much to the ultimate union victory in the civil war. after the war wallace become internationally famous for his novel "ben hur".

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    shiloh church

    by doug48 Updated Aug 8, 2011

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    shiloh meeting house

    shiloh church is stop five on the auto tour. the battle was named after the shiloh meeting house. the meeting house was destroyed during the battle and the building you see today is a replica. this was the site of fierce fighting during the battle.

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    rhea springs

    by doug48 Updated Aug 8, 2011
    rhea spring

    rhea springs and field is stop six on the auto tour. exposed from converging fire from union troops defending shiloh church confederate forces here sustained devastating losses on april 6 th. located near the spring and in rhea field are confederate burial trenches.

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    fraley field

    by doug48 Updated Aug 8, 2011
    fraley field

    fraley field is stop seven on the auto tour. fraley field was the site of the first engagement of the battle of shiloh. at 4:55 am april 6 th confederate pickets engaged a union patrol at fraley field.

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    union camps

    by doug48 Updated Aug 8, 2011
    union camp

    pictured is the site of a union camp at stop nine on the auto tour. after the engagement at reconnoitering road the confederates invaded the union camps located just north of the road. by 9:00 am the union was forced to flee these camps and retreated north towards pittsburg landing. the confederate advance halted here while they looted the camps.

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    the hornet's nest

    by doug48 Updated Aug 8, 2011
    the hornet

    the hornet's nest is stop ten on the auto tour. the area called the hornet's nest was the site of the fiercest fighting of the battle of shiloh. thousands of union and confederate soldiers died here as well as union general w. h. l. wallace and confederate general albert johnston.

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    confederate artillery monument

    by doug48 Updated Aug 8, 2011
    confederate artillery monument

    the confederate artillery monument is located on eastern corinth road near the hornet's nest. the area around the hornet's nest has a number of state and division monuments honoring the soldiers who fought at the battle of shiloh.

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