Angkor Thom, Angkor Wat

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  • leffe3's Profile Photo

    Bayon

    by leffe3 Updated Mar 23, 2012

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    The 12th century Bayon is something of an enigma.

    Its purpose is still being debated (although it is accepted that it is the State Temple of the new capital of Jayavarman VII, away from Rolous, away from Angkor Wat). But it is also quite difficult to get a full sense of the place, mainly because with its collection of some 54 towers (apparently the Khmer kingdom was made up of 54 provinces), many different levels, dark and uneven corridors, almost vertical staircases and those 200 enigmatic carved faces of Avalokiteshvara greeting you at virtually every turn at the higher levels, all add up to create a somewhat disorientating 'feel' to the place.

    Unlike the central temple in Angkor Wat, the Bayon is spread out vertically AND horizontally. It is also huge - 8 metre high walls surrounding a 3km square inner moat before the inner sanctuaries are reached!

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    Angkor Thom

    by schurman23 Written Sep 27, 2011

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    Also built in the 12th century, Angkor Thom is one of the largest ancient city temples of Khmer period. It is located just a few minutes tuktuk ride from Angkor Wat. We entered through the south gate with a cosway lined by statues of gods (left) and demons (right) leading through the entrance. The entrance has a tower with four faces pointing on four directions and three headed elephants. This temple complex includes Bayon temple which is known for the tower with four faces. This temple represents the intersection from heaven and earth.

    Website: http://members.virtualtourist.com/m/1550fe/123a76/

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    Victory Gate

    by Willettsworld Written Apr 27, 2010

    The Victory Gate is one of two gates located on the eastern side of the wall that surrounds Angkor Thom. It provides access to the Royal Square and the Palace and, like other gates, is 75ft (25m) tall and surrounded by a turreted structure consisting of four faces of the Bodhisattva Lokeshvara.

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    North Gate

    by Willettsworld Written Apr 27, 2010

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    After visiting Angkor Thom, you can exit via the northern gate in order to visit Preah Khan. Like the South Gate it features a bridge which is flanked by two sets of statues recreating a scene taken from the legend of the Churning of the Sea of Milk. As for the gate itself, like all five, it is 75ft (25m) tall and surrounded by a turreted structure consisting of four faces of the Bodhisattva Lokeshvara.

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    Terrace of the Leper King

    by Willettsworld Written Apr 27, 2010

    Commencing where the Elephant Terrace left off, and believed to date to the 13th century, the 6m-high Terrace of the Leper King is so named for the statue of Yama, the God of the Underworld, atop it. Stark naked, Yama sits with one knee raised, surveying the Royal Square. Because it is tainted by discolouration and lichen, the statue was believed to be one of a leper, and the name stuck. The statue is a replica, with the original now held in the National Museum in Phnom Penh. The terrace is decorated with seven levels (the top level is almost all gone) of bas relief carvings. Three of the four walls (east, north and south) are carved with very deep bas reliefs.

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    Phimeanakas

    by Willettsworld Written Apr 27, 2010

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    In the centre of the Royal Palace compound stands the Phimeanakas (described as a "Tower of Gold") which rises on three levels to over 30m high. Legend has it that King Suryavarman used to sleep here with his lover, a serpent woman.

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    Royal Palace

    by Willettsworld Written Apr 27, 2010

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    The construction of the Royal Palace was probably begun by Rajendravarman in the 10th century, enlarged by Suryavarman I in the 11th century and totally rebuilt by Jayavarman VII in the 12th century-13th century. This 34-acre area is bounded by a laterite wall - 16ft (5m) high, 807ft (246m) long from north to south and 1920ft (585m) from east to west - that in turn is surrounded by a moat. The main east entrance is from the Terrace of the Elephants from a gopuram (gateway). In the centre of the compound stands the Phimeanakas (described as a "Tower of Gold") which rises on three levels to over 30m high. Legend has it that King Suryavarman used to sleep here with his lover, a serpent woman.

    Sitting to the north of Phimeanakas is Srah Srei (Women's Bath), a large pond worth more than a cursory glance. Look for the detailed sea life carved into the walls of sandstone that form the edge of the pond. Creatures include crabs, giant lizards and fish, along with the mandatory crocodiles.

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    Khleang

    by Willettsworld Written Apr 27, 2010

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    The Khleangs are two buildings of unknown purpose on the east side of the Royal Square in Angkor Thom, located just behind the twelve towers of Prasat Suor Prat and separated by the royal route that leads from the Royal Palace to the Victory Gate. While the two appear to have been constructed as a set, that isn't the case. The northern Khleang was built first, by Jayaviravarman, with the southern following later during the reign of Suryavarman I, but was never finished.

    Their actual purpose is a bit of a mystery, though given the name means "storeroom" it has been suggested that they were used to, well, store things — perhaps even people in the form of visiting foreign dignitaries.

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    Prasat Suor Prat

    by Willettsworld Written Apr 27, 2010

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    The dozen Suor Prat towers stand directly opposite the Royal Palace enclosure and are placed symmetrically on either side of the royal road leading from the Victory gate to the Elephant Terrace.

    Suor Prat is believed to date to the early 13th century during the reign of Indravarman II. The purpose of the towers remains unknown. The name Prasat Suor Prat means "temple of the tightrope walkers" and one story suggests that the towers were used for conflict mediation. Squabbling parties were required to sit in separate towers, apparently for days, until whichever party was in the wrong got sick, while the party in the right would display no signs of sickness. Another story suggests the towers were used as anchors for tightrope artists and other performers, though building a dozen brick towers to support a tightrope performance seems excessive — even by Angkorian standards!

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    Terrace of the Elephants

    by Willettsworld Written Apr 27, 2010

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    Stretching for a full 300m from the Baphuon all the way to the Terrace of the Leper King, the photogenic Terrace of the Elephants surveys the Royal Square of Angkor Thom. As the name suggests, it's carved with lots of elephants and was used by Angkor's king Jayavarman VII as a platform from which to view his victorious returning army.

    The 3m-high terrace includes five staircases — one at the north and south end and three running along its length, with the central set of stairs being the largest. In between the staircases, the wall is decorated with elephants and their mahouts in hunting scenes, along with a generous sprinkling of garudas and lion-like creatures.

    The Elephant Terrace once supported the royal reception area and the many garudas and lion-like figures were intended to give the impression that the royal entourage, shaded by their parasols and gold-topped pavilions, were being held aloft in the heavens.

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    Baphuon

    by Willettsworld Written Apr 27, 2010

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    Erected around 1060 during the reign of King Udayadityavarman II, the Baphuon was situated just to the south of the Royal enclosure and was easily the largest temple of its time. It consists of a long, narrow entry path boosted by columns. The main structure would have been the tallest of the monuments at Angkor and is a three-tiered temple mountain built as the state temple of Udayadityavarman II dedicated to the Hindu God Shiva.

    Work to repair the Baphuon started in the 1960s when the monument's 300,000 stones were dismantled and each one's unique position meticulously recorded by the Ecole Francaise d'Extreme-Orient (EFEO). Then the 70s — war and the Khmer Rouge — descended and for more than two decades work was suspended. During this hiatus, virtually all the supporting paperwork save some photos of the temple were lost, leaving the restorers in the unenviable situation of trying to assemble possibly the world's largest jigsaw puzzle. Work was still being carried out when I visited in December 2008.

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    Bayon Libraries

    by Willettsworld Written Apr 27, 2010

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    These are the "libraries", a common feature of Khmer temple architecture, but their true purpose remains unknown. Most likely they functioned broadly as religious shrines rather than strictly as repositories of manuscripts. Freestanding buildings, they were normally placed in pairs on either side of the entrance to an enclosure, opening to the west.

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    Bayon Central Prasat

    by Willettsworld Written Apr 27, 2010

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    The Bayon was revealed as a three-tiered pyramid temple after being cleared of overgrowth, with the central tower stretching to 45m in height and 25m in diameter. This central tower is topped with the largest examples of the all-facing, all-seeing enigmatic faces that litter the temple throughout.

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    Bayon Faces

    by Willettsworld Written Apr 27, 2010

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    Originally the Bayon was comprised of 54 towers, each of which supported four faces — one looking to each point of the compass. Today, 49 towers remain. Theories behind the meaning of the faces have surmised that the sculptures represented King Jayavarman VII as a god-king and suggest that the 54 towers represent the 54 provinces of the realm, with the king's face looking over the entire country.

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    Bayon Bas-Reliefs

    by Willettsworld Written Apr 27, 2010

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    The Bayon temple is known also for two impressive sets of bas-reliefs, which present an unusual combination of mythological, historical, and mundane scenes. Though highly detailed and informative in themselves, the bas-reliefs are not accompanied by any sort of epigraphic text, and for that reason considerable uncertainty remains as to which historical events are portrayed and how, if at all, the different reliefs are related. From the east gopura clockwise, notable subjects are:

    In the southern part of the eastern gallery, a marching Khmer army (including some Chinese soldiers), with musicians, horsemen, and officers mounted on elephants, followed by wagons of provisions.

    In the eastern part of the southern gallery, a naval battle on the Tonle Sap between Khmer and Cham forces, underneath which are more scenes from civilian life depicting a market, open-air cooking, hunters, and women tending to children and an invalid

    Still in the southern gallery, past the doorway leading to the courtyard, a scene with boats and fisherman, including a Chinese junk, below which is a depiction of a cockfight; then some palace scenes with princesses, servants, people engaged in conversations and games, wrestlers, and a wild boar fight; then a battle scene with Cham warriors disembarking from boats.

    There are more bas-reliefs in the inner gallery that depict scenes from Hindu mythology. Some of the figures depicted are Siva, Vishnu, and Brahma and there is another depiction of the Churning of the Sea of Milk.

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