The Humboldt University in Berlin was founded in 1810 by the scholar, linguist and diplomat Wilhelm von Humboldt, 1767-1835, who for a short time -- less than a year, actually -- was in charge of education in the government of Prussia. During that time he and his staff not only founded the new university but also instituted sweeping reforms of the Prussian school system.
His younger brother Alexander von Humboldt, 1769-1859, was a naturalist and explorer who was especially interested in botany, geography and geology. He traveled for five years in Latin America and then spent the next twenty-one years, mainly in Paris, writing up the scientific results of his travels and publishing them in a set of huge, elaborately illustrated volumes. (I have looked through some of these in libraries and was astounded at the scope and vast amounts of detail.)
In the winter of 1827-28 Alexander von Humboldt gave a series of lectures on the natural sciences at the University of Berlin, now the Humboldt University. These lectures were the starting point of Kosmos, a "physical description of the world", in which he explained and summed up the results of a number of scientific disciplines of his time, including geography, geology, zoology, botany and astronomy.
Kosmos was a very popular book in the nineteenth century -- or books, since it was originally published in five volumes that Alexander von Humboldt wrote during the last three decades of his life. It was reprinted in various editions and was translated into several languages.
My copy of Kosmos (third photo) is a one-volume edition that I inherited from my father. It is in the original German but was printed and published in Philadelphia in 1869, ten years after the author's death.
1. Statues at Humboldt University
2. Books about Wilhelm and Alexander von Humboldt
3. Kosmos by Alexander von Humboldt
4. Cyclist at the Humboldt University
In 1905 Albert Einstein, who was then a 26-year-old employee of the Swiss Patent Office in Bern, published six scientific papers which among other things solved the long-standing problem of Brownian motion and introduced the totally new theory of Special Relativity. The 100th anniversary of these papers in 2005 was the occasion for numerous exhibitions on Einstein and his life and work.
Here at the Humboldt University in Berlin is where Einstein worked (and sometimes also lectured) from 1914 to 1932.
Thanks to VT member kokoryko (Hermann) for pointing out that Berlin was where Albert Einstein wrote his seminal paper on the theory of General Relativity, "the paper which changed our vision of the universe". This paper was first published in the Journal of the Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin in 1916.
Second photo: Here again is my favorite book on Einstein: Subtle is the Lord… The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein by Abraham Pais, published 1982 by Oxford University Press. Just don't ask me to explain the equations, okay?
Third, fourth and fifth photos: People riding bicycles past the Humboldt University on the street Unter den Linden. Albert Einstein was a keen cyclist who once said that he got the idea for his Special Theory of Relativity while riding his bicycle. Another Einstein quotation: “Life is like riding a bicycle. To keep your balance you must keep moving.”
We just happened to notice old cars through the window and went in. It is free to visit, and you can see Mercedes cars from many ages. Also many MB-accesories sold in here.
We only watched the oldest cars at the street lewel, and didn´t go upstairs. We are not so much MB-fans anyway ;) But we do like old cars. Especially my husband.
And as I said, it is free to visit.
Kronprinzpalais (The Crown Prince Palace) was the residence of the heir to the throne, right up to the abolition of the monarchy. The palace was built the mid-17th century in Baroque style but later on modified in neo-Classical style. Master builder Heinrich Gentz linked the Kronprinzpalais with the connection to the neighboring Prinzenpalais. William the second, Germany's last emperor was born here in 1859.
Presently (till July 2013?) on a large part of the avenue the Linden - lime trees - have been replaced by cranes. These works extend on both sides of the Friedrichstasse cross-road disfiguring the Unter den Linden avenue.
A consequence of these works is that the Metro line U6 does not ride between the Friedrichstr. and Französichestr. stations.
The statue of Frederick the Great (Reiterdenkmal Friedrichs des Grossen) sits in pride of place on the central reservation of Berlin's popular tree-lined boulevard, Unter den Linden. The statue itself is set in bronze and depicts Frederick the Great on horseback. It was created in 1839-51 by a protege of Gottfried von Schadow called Christian Daniel Rauch.
Sadly the area around the statue was a bit of a building site when I visited so many of my photos reflect this. Nevertheless, you can't miss taking a look at this huge statue as you walk from Museum Island towards the Brandenburg Gate.
Unter den Linden is Berlin's spectacular, wide, tree-lined avenue that forms the hub of Old Berlin. The avenue leads through the centre of the city from Pariser Platz at the Brandenburg Gate to the Lustgarten. Along its pavements lie many imperial buildings including the Opera House, Humboldt university, the Academic Library, St. Hedwig's cathedral, the Berliner Dom. Many of the buildings were designed by the famous German architect Karl Schinkel. According to its name, the street is lined with linden trees that Hitler ordered to be chopped down so that the road could be widened during the Second World War. Many buildings were destroyed during allied bombing but Unter den Linden has been gradually restored to its former glory.
The equestrian monument of Frederick the Great, coloqially called "alte Fritz" (the old Fred) is situated at the beginning of Unter den Linden Bulevard and is among the grandest monuments in the city of Berlin. This monument was prepared nearly 70 years by 40 different artists and over 100 designes to determine its final plan. Fridrichs des Grossen is most famous and the most important king of Prussia who reigned from 1740 to 1786. The final design of the monument was made by Christian Daniel Rausch in 1839. It is 13,5 meter high and made of bronze and wondefully ornated. The king sits atop Conde, his favorite horse, and dressed in coronation robes. The pedestal is emblazoned with the 60 men who were the leading figures in Germany around mid of the 19th century.
At each corner of the pedestal are four calvary commanders, while at the same level are 21 statues of the most outstanding generals of Friedrich's army, as well as the leading figures in politics, art and science.
In 1985 I stood on the western side of the Brandenburg Gate and peered across the Wall and No Man’s Land, through its arches to what was at one time the most elegant street in the city, Unter den Linden. With its western extension, Straße des 17. Juni, it forms the same sort of classically symmetrical urban vista as Paris’s Champs Elysées, with the golden gleam of the Siegesaule (Victory Column) at one end, the Brandenburg Gate as its mid-point and distant views of the Berliner Dom (cathedral) in the east. But in 1985 it was difficult to see this view properly, and impossible to walk its length. Not so today; with reunification the boulevard has rediscovered its former glory and once again forms the central spine of the city.
Unter den Linden takes its name from the linden or lime trees that were first planted there in 1647. Duke Friedrich Wilhelm, also known as The Great Elector, was dedicated to the development and beautification of Berlin during his reign and ordered the planting of long rows of Linden trees to spruce up the route from his castle home to the Tiergarten hunting ground, and to keep the route more shady and comfortable for his travels. Thus his carriage ride took him "unter den linden", that is “under the lindens”. Lime trees still line the central paved strip, although of course they are not those that Friedrich planted there. Many will have been replaced over the years, and in the 1930s many were cut down when a tunnel for the S-bahn was constructed beneath the road. Those that remained were used for firewood in the last days of World War Two, when the city was under siege. The ones we see today were planted in the 1950s, restoring the character of this famous avenue.
A stroll “under the lindens” will take you past many of Berlin’s grand buildings, including the Berlin State Opera, Humboldt University, St. Hedwig’s Cathedral, the Neue Wache (once the guardhouse for the royal guards and now the National Memorial to the Victims of War and Tyranny), the Zeughaus (German Historical Museum), and the Altes Palais.
Unter den Linden is Berlin's loveliest boulevard and the heart of historical Berlin (Mitte). It extends from Pariser Platz, at the Brandenburg Gate, to the Schlossbrucke bridge, a distance of about 1.5km.
It is named for the linden or lime trees which line the grassed pedestrian area between the two carriageways. During the last days of World War II most of the trees were destroyed or cut down for firewood. The trees were replanted in the 1950s and have flourished ever since.
There are many interesting buildings along Unter den Linden (their street number is in brackets below). You can visit the Deutsches Historisches Museum, which is Germany's largest history museum. It is housed in the Zeughaus (2), which was the royal arsenal building built in 1706.
Also you can see the Russian Embassy (63-65), built in typical Stalin-style; the Deutsche Guggenheim (13-15) with its contemporary art exhibitions; the Alte Staatsbibliothek - Old National Library (8), which was founded in 1661; and the Humboldt Universitat (6), Berlin's oldest university, founded in 1810. Oh, and the statue of Frederick the Great in the middle of the road, facing west.
Why not take a walk along the boulevard and admire some of the buildings, or on a fine day you can have a break on one of the seats under the pretty linden trees.
I was walking along this the most represantitive boulevard of former East Berlin up to the Branderburger Gate when the infamous wall stood in the past.
The street and houses along were (and still are) in rebuilding and renovation process since the wall fell down and it happens again as the houses were complitely destroyed (to the earth) at the end of WWII and remained damaged even till 60' of 20th century.
What was interesting there? A lot of impressive 18th and 19th century, renovated or newly built buildings.
Ok, from the west:
- Branderburg Gate,
- Jakob-Kaiser House - the largest of the Bundestag?s new parliamentary buildings,
- Adlon Hotel building (new),
- Embassy of Russian Federation building,
- Guggenheim Museum (yes, yes - German and new branch of famous NYC museum),
- National Library ( Staatsbibliothek),
- Monument of Frederick the Great (on the horse),
- buildings of Humboldt University,
- Alte Bibliothek (Old Library) and Staatsoper (State Opera),
- buildings of Opernpalais and Konprinzenpalais,
- Neue Wache (New Guardhouse),
- Zeughaus (Arsenal) - amazing baroque building which houses German Historical Museum,
- the Schlossbr?cke bridge where Karl-Liebknechtstra?e with Berliner Dome begins.
Named for the avenue of linden or lime trees that line it's central walkway, Under den Linden is a wide boulevard running from the Brandenburg Gate to the site of the former royal palace. Developed from a bridle path laid out by Elector Johann Georg of Brandenburg in the 16th century to reach his hunting grounds in the Tiergarten, the linden trees were planted in 1647 on the orders of Elector Friedrich Wilhelm, and it became the most famous street in the city. Sadly, during WWII, most of the trees were destroyed, but they were replanted in the 1950s.
Even in winter, Unter den Linden is a beautiful place to stroll, and you can appreciate the faded grandeur of days gone by.