Bosra lies in a fairly remote area in southern Syria, but it can be reached by road easily from Damascus or Amman. Bus routes reach Bosra from Damascus, but if you could arrange for your own transportation, then combining nearby towns on the same visit would be much easier. Bosra is only 130km south of the capital.
I visited Bosra on a day trip from Amman. It is a little trickier given the border crossing as a Syrian visa would need to be arranged in advance, plus a private taxi would be required. This can be expensive from Jordan, but if three or four people share the cost, it would be more manageable. In Amman, there are specifically designated taxis that cross the border into Syria and they would be able to accompany you back and forth to Bosra and nearby towns. Cost would have to be agreed upon in advance. The drive takes a little under two hours including border crossing from Amman to Bosra.
There's a bus that leaves daily for Busra from Damascus. This is a local bus that your hotel can provide details for. It will make several stops along the way, and it's not particularly fast. Nor is it too slow to worry about. One will pass vistas of Mt. Hermon along the way. The return bus leaves rather late and will probably arrive in Damascus after dark in spring. We were invited by a single German man to hitch a ride with him back to the city by way of Qanawat, which was a worthwhile archeological stop of its own. See the Qanawat page for more details and images of this interesting early Christian period architecture.
Several highway buses are available from Damascus, Bramkeh, the bus station to the southern areas of this country. The price of the straight way is 50SP. There are several times only for there. If it is not on time, The buses for Dar'a are available. When you use the bus for Dar'a, you have to ride on a service for Busra at the bus station of Dar'a. You must take care of the people there. Soon after you get off the bus, some people ask you where you will go. Dont answer it to them. To the oppositte side, there is a place of the service for Busra. The price is 15SP per person, according to my memory.
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